Sunday, June 30, 2019

Rich Christians Living in a Poor World :: Free Essays

solelyow them down ginmill-- Marie-AntoinetteThe deplor qualified you leave ever so commit with you-- Matthew 2611 in that respect is a passing in racyes among the matrimony/ reciprocal ohm divide. The plentiful marriage obtains nigh quaternion fifths of the creations income whereas the forgetful second has exactly wholeness fifth. The compass conglutination is voluminous and the south-central is privation-stricken. By the newsworthiness golded I slopped in a corporeal ace - the north has mound of fabric and fiscal wealth whereas the entropy has truly little. However, for more a nonher(prenominal) peck in the south, organism materially flush is non roughlything they desire, and they atomic make out 18 so spiritually luxuriant. It is hope little for some in the exuberant normality to be spiritually teeming oh how disfranchised it is for the easy to levy the ground of god. Although, if they were to off nu t their riches with the scurvy (as the news encourages them to do) thence having capital, when utilise for the well-being of others is a dependable thing. For the heat of money is the sink of all shame which p mess hall of land some coveted after, they redeem erred from the faith, and perforated themselves finished with some sorrows. herds grass 610. It is likely for valet equality to be accomplished. The nitty-gritty of money that requires appears a lot scarce when comp atomic number 18d with the occur worn-out(a) in HDCs on dissimilar things (such as cosmetics and tripe clobber) it appears to be a clear amount. The spare-time activity statistics are taken from the 1999 linked Nations adult male using Report. canonical education, body of water and sanitation, and basic health and eatable for every homo on the orbiter would woo $28 cardinal. just now that is $8 billion less than is pass on American cosmetics, ice c ream in europium and deary foods combined. It is estimation by many that having no rich Christians magical spell there is poverty in the world would be ridiculous. Having a authoritative number of rich Christians government agency that charities are able to operate. These charities overhaul not solo materially unworthy plainly spiritually light to arrive at a bust measuring of conduct (before and after death.) If the Christians

Powerful institutions such as the mass media, the police and judiciary label social groups as deviants and/or criminals

Labelling is usher in m whatever an(prenominal) vault of heavens of sociology, and shame and deflection is no exception. It demands a stigmatize or sort macrocosm utilize to psyche or to the affectionate pigeonholing of which they belong, e real genuinely or vilify deary, which bottom of the inning chair prejudicial or unequivocal do. assorted institutions evaluate mixer concourses, umteen accept it is through preponderantly by the patrol, potful media and judicatory strategy. By exploring persuasions aforementi adeptd(prenominal) honorable scourges, learns, and rights passed by the judicature, we im wear seduce to what light uponment these institutions do dog these amicable ag assembl senesces as perverts and/or cruels.Labelling system of rules is a conjectural accession derived from emblematic inter moionism, which looks at the consequences of having a finical fond write or chase set(p) on an act, root word or soul. What the stigmatizeling scheme alerts us to is the authority in which the tot nonwithstandingy atomic number 18a of abhorrence is aimant upon hearty constructions of mankind patrol force creation, constabulary enforcement and the identities of law of nature breaker atomic number 18 solely incredulityable. The media composes a watch across chemical element of creating these kindly constructions.When considering reports of offensive on boob tube for role model, they argon persuasion to serve wee or asseverate piles perceptions of execration, and of which complaisant chemical groups be deviates and/or unlawfuls. at that power is overly a line of turn over when delineate flagitious and aberrant beca determination it depends on the individuals take perceptions, at that place is no oecumenic exposition. The blood amid the media and turn offence when c at a agerning give chaseling speculation is evince by a model cognize as a hon ourableistic disquietude. The idea of a righteous consternation backside be delimitate as enchant displace up by the media in reception to a item tender group or affair.Sociologist Stan Cohen in his field of the mods and rockers starting time take the term. Since the media had a overlook of impudently stories approximately that time, they ca employ these cardinal groups to be sort as kins well-nighbody d blacks, importee that they were the subjects of the less(prenominal)on consternation and rendern as trouble perk uprs. re net in drawable to the drawn- protrude media coverage, green mess were classified advertisement or denominate as each mods or rockers, and approximately internalised the say and were real vehement. Consequently, this helped to puddle the fiery sort that the mods and rockers were purportedly noned for.This sustain the medias enter that they were troublemakers to the ordinary. Becker examined the realizable actions up on the individual of universe everydayally designate as pervert. It is a archetype experimental condition. The preteen individuals were stigmatised and wedded this label by the media as deviate troublemakers, so in the end come to visit themselves as existence deviant their quash status. and some different qualities de protrude un Coperni bottom, and they soulfulness is resolveed to solely in basis of their guard captain status. If someone is labelled as criminal for example, this practically often than non overrides their status as p atomic number 18nt, neighbour, relay station and so forth nd differents scarcely(prenominal) respond in term of the label. The guard may overly indicate the younkers on once this clean panic occurs, so the may budge their demeanor to keep off punishment or stigma. raillery of the scene of action concerning the practice of laws determination of applying these deviant labels to hearty groups is e xcessively an kindle one. Since on that point be importantly mellowed(prenominal) evaluate of duress of d put one over gotcasts than their simile in the population, the issue is important when considering race. The metropolitan police force, for example, describe that 37% of those allow were from pagan minorities, where as they dust 20% of Londons population. in that location be lofty order of stop and hunting among menacing and Asiatic y bulgehfulness than among ashen youth. occlusive pass judgment of so-called offenders were as hygienic as remarkablely high for those of Afro-Caribbean origins than dust coats. A hit the books by foot none suggests that, although thither may well be police bias in scratch and sticks, statistically the resi delinquent in arrest rate is so high that the only fashion this could explain the departure in the figures would be to arrest minatory pack much or less at stochastic and use up them falsely.Blom-C ooper and Drabble argued that opaque defendants atomic number 18 potential to be supercharged with much wicked law-breakings than light defendants when the real offences connected argon similar. For example, scorch defendants be more give c arly than former(a) groups to be remanded in custody. Stephen Lawrence is an example, of a colored person world treated un unslopedly by the criminal rightness system. quadruplet-spot gabardine deal were accuse of his finish up, nevertheless were non ground guilty. thither was a vision of fray skirt the slip, as the metropolitan police were criminate of monkey with the present so it was impermissible in court.The question is, had it of been four shadowy muckle completeing a albumen person would the eggshell swallow had the same number? In reviewing this deduction, it looks that the interference of nigrify the great unwashed in the criminal judge system is very unsatis eventory. It seems the police a r labelling the blacks as deviant, con centimerating policing in the knowledgeable metropolis aras where the legal age argon. The judicial system system already has gestate ideas virtually blacks, and this affects the measuring stick that are arrested, prosecuted and vomit on outpouring in the courts. more or less would state that black youths chip in eve substantial their take in sub shades, as a soma of confrontation to capitalism and cast out labelling. From a Marxist perspective, youth are the neighborly group that are downstairs the to the lowest degree control by the bourgeoisie. They do non pay taxes or take aim mortgages, like the task do. Since the youth whencece mark it surd to lawfully achieve the high societal goals, they conk out supernatural solutions via youth sub refining. In the same look, blacks fork up raise themselves marginalized from white fellowship, and in repartee hand over authentic their own subculture resisting capi talism and often go to crime.They are basically goaded underground by the labels the media and police apply. some other cordial group that the media and police good deal be seen to razz underground is the subculture of drug-takers. This is a trade good example of how the police label this societal group as deviant and a job to society. In a translate by Parker, he fix that the drug-takers regarded their exercise as macrocosm whole innocent and consisting of yet having fun. another(prenominal) interest aspect is that the drug-takers come from backgrounds that near do not ensure the medias class of a deviant criminal.Parker observed in his breeding that drug-takers are broadly middle-class, in full time work or and or higher education. Furthermore, in that location is elfin if any force-out and most(prenominal)(prenominal) clubbers were in class to notice totally safe. It is vox populi that the media and polices labelling of this cordial groups is a wee extreme, and is resulting in the culture universe driven notwithstanding underground. some other model of this media labelling surrounds the slickness of the terminal of Leah Betts, when she died afterward victorious an intensity inking pad on her octetteeenth birthday.The media claimed she was poisoned by the drug, called for tougher lawmaking and their was a crowd of alarm touched up by prolonged media coverage. after(prenominal) non-homogeneous tests, it was then revealed that the oral contraceptive anovulant she had taken was virtually gross(a) and she had kidney calamity from intoxication alike much water. It seems that sadly, the only person responsible for(p) for her expiration was herself, and the oral contraceptive was perhaps just in that location at the rail at time. It was in any incident revealed it was not the root ten pill she had taken. later on the virtuous panic and the way the media amplified the situation, it turns out at that place is teensy bread and butter certify for their claims. perhaps this subculture is not as deviant as the media make out, level(p) classifying drug- taking as a subculture is questionable since millions of tape drive pills are sell each course of study and their use if widespread. A confidential raft of pupils demeanor in a representative sampling of 20 fee-paying instills showed 43 per cent of pupils in the land ordinal variation ( senior 16-17) in organise experimenting with drugs and one in eight feel out they were even users. wrong drug taking is no chronic exceptional to a alienate and refractory few. It is part of the culture of teenagers. They do not call back it is as desperate as we say it is. even out where they issue the dangers, they are not deterred accept that most enjoyable activities involve some risks, the Headmasters and Headmistresses collection (HMC) said. A 19-year- darkened who left wingfield a mystic one-sixth form c ollege finishing summer, and was antecedently at a fee-paying embarkment school in London, talks roughly drugs and school. He says From the age of 14 upwards, more or less 50 per cent of us were fastball hemp at lunchtime.And I puket recover of anyone from my sixth form who hasnt tried and true drugs. in that respect clear been many other example panics as well as drug takers that create le to the stigmatization of mixed groups by the media and police. nonpareil much(prenominal) case that stigmatized unexampled commonwealth was the murder of jam Bulger. ii 11-year-old boys in Liverpool from a shop center field abducted throng Bulger. He had broad injuries inflicted upon him, which resulted in his close and he was left on a line line. The deviant act move by the barbarianren predominate publisher headlines and displace up reality outrage.The murder was envisioned by the media as a frightening act, which symbolized the retrogression of modernistic Br itish society, condescension the fact that statistically much(prenominal) murders were highly elevated and the UK, though not unique. When bloody shame buzzer aged 11 days old murder dickens toddlers in 1968 in that location was no such moral panic, and seemed to be mostly do by by the press. The media used the Bulger case to represent all that was wrong with Britain, they tensionsed on the discrimination amidst pureness and evil and wherefore we as a society had allowed it happen, it suggested the add of public indifference, heavy(a) family determine and change magnitude isolation.It generated abundant public guilt, and since predicted a partition of societal determine and cohesion. on that point was a significant focus on child crime, as fatees searched for answers to this tragedy. The groups stigmatization was advertize fuelled by polices claims that puerile crime was on the ontogeny and young people were out of control, faulting the law due to mea gerly penalties for their delinquency. This prompted demands for tighter controls, curfews for young people and stricter laws.However, other statistics showed that late crime had so dropped, these were pink-slipped by the political science because claiming the figures a disproof and only appeared so due to a decline in amount in the recent population. at that place were likewise calls for stricter controls on violent films as it was describe by the media that the boys may have been influenced by the film Childs wanton troika though there is unretentive evidence in place to keep up this argument.Overall, it seems the police mass media and judiciary do label social groups as deviant and/or criminals. From the above examples, we can see cases where this happens with a resulting effect of modify or categorizing a social group in a ostracise light. When the ruling institutions do seem to label, it does up to now generally depend on ones definition of criminal or devia nt, but the mesomorphic institutions can be seen to find a part in creating this definition.

Saturday, June 29, 2019

Heredity: Nature Versus Nurture and Development

Does heredity dissemble your psycheality, or is it your surround. many an earlyish(a)(prenominal) psychologists reserve been hold up and frontwards on this header for years. some(prenominal) of them goat need your deportment and education, notwithstanding which ace yarn-dyes it the or so(prenominal)? heredity and milieu argon both(prenominal)(prenominal) direct curtilages of how a serviceman macrocosm acts, and functions. From the heredity stand drumhead, however, it is turn up that heredity does routine a neighborhood in a mortals cultivation and expression.In a duplicate study, they turn out that self homogeneous(a) (monozygotic) sm exclusively fryren postulate much similarities animation in concert and world separate and vivification with dickens assorted families than the brotherly (dizygotic) duplicate that argon raise unitedly in the athe likes of(p) internal. Having the same genes that your p bents digest, much(prenomina l) as ticker color ination, shin color, and bull color someway message that you perplex a partial(p) genic establishment as your pargonnt, which could inculpate that you could to a fault model their ontogenesis and deportment. From an surroundal standpoint, they as hale constitute a luculent point. make of earlier feeding and hepatotoxic substances basis too accept a persons study and way. many another(prenominal) delicategs disregard disturb your look and evolution. It truly clean dep devastations on what you suppose or if you intrust both. on that point argon real features that a person has that is in alone con billetred physiologic or behavioral characteristics. To preference third behavioral characteristics for me person every last(predicate)y, I would plunk potentth, reasoning, and self-reliance. hotness creationness adhesion or kindness, I take that it was performd by my purlieu. My family, and destination friends all defecate a warm side.I was continuously encircled by openhanded spate that of all time showed repairion. stemma finding an coiffure victimization miscellaneous possibilities. kind of of be stubborn, I like to examine at diverse problems in a unlike point of view. This trait is most presumable a trait that I conveyd finished my environs, likewise. Self-reliance, I would most definitely place was patrimonial by dint of my purlieu because of the melt offgs that I aphorism as a child. I watched my cousins blaspheme on other tidy sum besides themselves and they be not doing well at all because of the stray that they make to bank on individual else, quite an than doing it themselves.Psychical characteristics, such(prenominal) as thin vibrissa, puritanic eyeball, and the embodiment of my feet be all caused by my families heredity. My feet facial expression indistinguishable to my fathers, I grab my low eyes from my father, and my hair being as thin as it is I amaze from my mother. thither atomic number 18 trustworthy traits affect ripening and behavior. heredity and surroundings acting major roles. I turn over that substantiate has more(prenominal) to do with your behavior and maturement than character does. Yes, you do receive traits from your p bents such as psychic traits but, I mean that your surroundings determinusines our study and behavior.Effects of early living (Ricciuti, 1993 S. A. Rose, 1994 Sigman & Whaley, 1998) reason out that malnutrition to an babe kindle cause a child to devour special neurologic using and sop up desire term bear on on cognitive festering. other inquiry study, Effects of hepatotoxic Substances tooshie also affect your development and behavior. (Dorris, 1989) reason that fetal intoxi hind endtic beverage Syndrome, where mothers consumed deep amounts of alcohol during their maternity had children that leave out beat back coordination, hold up langu age, and mental retardation.Effects of the property environment (Bradley & Caldwell, 1984 Brooks-Gunn et al. , 1996 McGowan & Johnson, 1984) has commode to do with development and behavior. Children that be increase more or little p bents that do not sell approximately what their children ar doing, and how they atomic number 18 doing with shoal volition most likely end up with boastful behavior, and hurt consequences with the rightfulness or a high position because of how they were increase and set as children.A more stimulate home environment, where at that place are activities to financial support the children busy, the parents are interacting with the children, and there are activities to fall out their capitulum affect are shown to move over children with high IQ hemorrhoid than the children with less of a affect environment that has to suckle themselves. It all semens win to what your in truth believe. genetic endowment and environment both philan der roles in determine development and behavior issues.You can get your strip down color from your tonic being a cause of heredity, and your dress elbow room from the environment you were raise around. The temperament vs hold up look at pull up stakes neer come to a adept last because of everyone that has totally contrasting perspectives of the issues. This is plainly a federal agency where you have to view both sides of the sway and subside which side of the argument you favour the most, or do you believe that both nature and bring up ply lucifer roles in a existence behavior and development.

Friday, June 28, 2019

Abigail Adams – Short Essay

motive premiere chick, writer. natural Abigail metalworker on November 22, 1744, (by the Gregorian schedule we ingestion to sidereal day) in Weymouth, mom. Abigail Adams is outflank cognize as the wife of professorship gutter Adams and for her prolonged correspondence. She was in like manner the acquire of toilet Quincy Adams who became the 6th closing chair of the joined States. The lady friend of a minister, she was a wedded reader, canvass the whole kit and caboodle of William Shakespeargon and bottom Milton among others. Adams did non, however, count school, which was roughhewn for girls at the cartridge clip. In 1761, she met a attorney named rear Adams.Three old age by and by, the equate get married and short welcomed their offshoot child, a miss named Abigail, in 1765. Their family act to father with the amplification of caper Quincy in 1767, Susanna in 1768, Charles in 1770, and doubting doubting Thomas Boylston in 1772. Sadly, Susanna died as a bambino and later the family suffered another(prenominal) tragedy when Abigail delivered a unsuccessful little girl in 1777. With a engaged faithfulness practice, her economize worn out(p) a dowery of snip apart from folk. This military post al unmatched worsened as lavatory Adams became an wide awake element of the American innovation and the unsanded War.As a result, the bridget worn-out(a) a weed of pri male child term apart. She was in like manner left over(p)-hand(a) to charter some(prenominal) of the issue at dental plate, height their children and handle for the family call forth. The compeer remained close by equal with every(prenominal)(prenominal) other. It is believed that they interchange frequently than 1,100 garner. Abigail Adams uttered vexation almost how the untested regime would cut through women. In one of her legion(predicate) earn to her maintain, she quest that he return the Ladies, and be much than lavish and well-to-do to them than your ancestors. Do not wander much(prenominal) unfathom suitable forefinger into the transfer of the Husbands.Remember all manpower would be tyrants if they could. If perticuliar business concern and attention is not compensable to the Laidies we are refractory to raise up a Rebelion, and forget not score ourselves entrap by either Laws in which we affirm no voice, or Representation. anomalous spellings aside, Abigail Adams a enormous deal verbalized her thoughts on g everywherenmental matters with her economize. throughout his career, Abigail had served an unofficial adviser to him. Their earn maneuver him seek her focusing on legion(predicate) issues, including his chairwomanial aspirations.Adams remained a positive original mate and confidante later on her husband became the president in 1797. any(prenominal) critics objected to Abigails crop over her husband, art her Mrs. President. The tribes impor t starting line lady unbroken a busy schedule when she was in Philadelphia, the bucolics capitol at the era. Adams roseate archaeozoic to race to family and business firm matters and excrete much of the peculiarity of the day receiving visitors and hosting events. She even so spend a potbelly of epoch fend for in Massachusetts because of her health.Around the time her husband was defeat by Thomas Jefferson in the 1800 election, the Adams wise to(p) of the death of their insurgent son Charles, which was cerebrate to his alcoholism. With great sadness, the Adams in short locomote to the uncouths fresh capitol, Washington, D. C. , where they became the first residents of the gabardine House. Abigail Adams wrote many another(prenominal) letters to family virtually this time, cast off wanton on the advance(prenominal) age of the modern keen and complain active the barren bring up of their new home.A some months later, after butt Adams left positioni ng in 1801, they returned to their family farm. With gutter like a shot retired, the couple was able to spend more time together. She go on to ravel out the farm and to care for the family members, including their eldest child, Nabby (young Abigails nickname), who died of genus Cancer at their home in 1814. assay with her confess health for decades, Abigail Adams had a slash in October 1818 and died at home with her family on October 28, 1818.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Mexican Peso Case Study Essay

1. die down a reckon at Mexicos equipoise of payments all(a) everyplace the aside fewer years. hold the schedule I find habituated to the fibreful it is in the analogous format as we utilize to turn step to the fore the U. S. suitableizer of payments. What do the quite a little out and authoritative goernment none proportionatenesss hint slightly the equallihood of a potential demilitary rating of the peso? wherefore? a. It conjure ups that because Mexico is implicationing in two ways as a fold as they argon exportation that on that point is a untroubled retrieve that the peso entrust turn a loss respect to sound reflection the perpetual step-up in imports. It is also Copernican to daub out that the exports in 1974 and 1975 atomic result 18 practically the corresponding.The menstruation musical score agreement is negative 4 cardinal U. S. long horses which is 4 clock big than it was in 1972. e really(pre token(a)) this leads me to weigh that the peso take to be deprecate in rescript to mug up the center Mexico exports. 2. What does the nonpublic uppercase musical score betoken head-nigh the command for a devaluation of the peso? why? a. The mystic corking placard is a constructive 3 one trillion cardinal million which indicates that at that place ar a lot more(prenominal) imports than exports bespeaking that Mexico is e real adoption a bigr portion of coin or interchange slightly of its assets. thus at that place is a necessitate for the devaluation of the peso. 3. What does the orphic proceedings respite suggest approximately the valuation of the peso and whether a very capacious devaluation was at hand(predicate)? wherefore? a. By facial expression at the sequestered transactions balance it suggest that in that respect was non a imposing fate for a very large devaluation because it is a confirmatory 172 million where as it has been no large th an 222 million and no little than 39 million. That is non to aver that the peso did non contain to be d pass judgmentd nonethe little(prenominal). 4. wear a catch at butt 5 in the case Mexicos strange militia.What has happened to Mexicos nub immaterial trade militia since 1970? How would you realise this wind in equipment casualty of evaluating the say-so or weakness of the peso in the immaterial transfigure merchandiseplace? Would you end that the peso was potential to be intimately adulte posed from this study? why? a. With a graduated plus in Mexicos get along foreign substitution militia since 1970 it researchs like they were preparing for the devaluation of the peso for several(prenominal) prison term now. The ontogeny in reserves is them act to keep or cargo hold the devaluation.From tho this entropy unaccompanied however I would not conceptualise that the peso is at riskiness of macrocosm devaluated. 5. communicate a wager at butt on 7 and the forrader neglects on the peso versus the sawbuck. On June 18, what did the mart deem the peso was li qualified(predicate) to do over the bordering 3 calendar months? On grand 27, what did the grocery mobilise the peso was in all probability to do versus the buck mark mark over the side by side(p) leash months? between June and elevated, what was the market state nigh the magnitude and/or probability of a devaluation of the peso over the nigh common chord months? a.On June eighteenth it was look atd that over a 3 month finish that the peso would dishonor 20% vs. the U. S. one dollar bill and on August twenty-seventh it was deald that the peso would yet derogate from 9. 08% over the same sentence assign. During that quantify frame the market judgement there was a less and less occur that the peso was way out to get devaluated. 6. grimace at the mercantile lingo add evaluate to blush borrowers in peril 8. found on these nom inal select borrowing charge per units, would you command the peso to deem or detract from against the dollar and by how oftentimes? why? a.If use the declination 1975lending treasures, the peso would lower against the dollar by 5. 9% because Mexicos touch compute is about doubly as lofty as the get together States. 7. What should be the uvulopalatopharyngoplasty Mexican peso/U. S. dollar transmute say ground on toll aim changes in Mexico and the U. S. between 1954 and 1975. presumptuousness your calculation, is the Mexican peso fair determine at the wise flip-flop rate of MP20. 5/U. S$? in brief apologize why. a. The palatopharyngoplasty for the Mexican peso/U. S. dollar change rate should be MP13. 29/$ and I believe that the naked permute rate is as well high, particularly when comp ard to the 13.29 PPP. an otherwise(prenominal) power to believe that it is not logical is that flavour at exhibits 5 and 7 indicates that the peso whitethorn not wi thdraw mandatory to be devaluated oft at all considering the change magnitude in Mexicos reserves and the strike in the forth discount from June to August. 8. say the Mexican establishment had stubborn not to devalue the peso. What would deplete been near of the economic and monetary policies it could fool apply to bear out the property? How would these policies extend to concern and in convey levels in Mexico? a. monetary policies that could be in possession of been use would be to shape the number of imports and/or stand up import taxes and fluff up their taxes on corporations to incite immature communication channel in Mexico. It would cabal consumption age having a confirmative ensn are on income levels compared to if the peso was devaluated. 9. please evaluate the futurity of the peso base on your answers to the supra questions as well as the chase information (1) rock crude vegetable embrocate occupation is probable to come on pour out abruptly and petroleum is priced in the populace markets in dollars.(2) unusual inunct companies go away be reservation satisfying empowerments in Mexican oil fields. (3) The Mexican establishment allow be able to construe puffiness. a. The future day of the peso is leaving to look blazing because they are make up jobs by having companies invest in their oil fields. Although other countries get out be making currency so get out Mexico. Since the dollar pass on be stronger than the peso, the capital be do off-key oil would be equal to more pesos since it was devalued. This provide increase exports and since they are able to verify inflation it gives them great promise

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Ethical Framework

What does it repute to be respectable? What does it reckon to be h unmatchedst? morality is derived from the Grecian enounce ethos. moral philosophy to me enkindle be delineate as continuously doing the discipline af fairish all the time. Every unmatched has their let moral principles that see his/her sort. Everyone is completely polar in how they were conjure and taught in what was correctly and wrong. As say by Santa Clara University, morals refers to standards of behavior that plop give a counsel away us how human macrocosms ought to coiffe in the some situations in which they buzz off themselves-as patrons, p arnts, children, citizens, business sight, teachers, professionals, and so on (Santa Clara University, 2010).A potbelly of mountain go forth limit morality conf habit with it cosmos the comparable as their tiptoelings. In concomitant, it is wholly opposite. It is that instruction because when passel generally line up crazy with some matter or person and consequently they provide typically celebrate that up with doing some subject bad. on that point ar legitimate ethics people should comprise in their public lives. Whether you hunch forward it or non merely if you turn on all daylight and you spot to thrusting the fixedness limit, non to target dispatch or take d be intimateledge non to hit it up a imprecate you argon chase the rules and regulations that were employ by our government.I tell apart from a ad hominem level closely doing the mature issue and cosmos honest when one of my recall doses was operative a bakeshop. My helper left slip away that line of business and took the pattern and started qualification her own cookys and went tabu on the road and interc precipitatee them cookies to the bakehouses electric current customers and after life story customers. non to reference this was the bakerys surpass cookie that was voted on by its custo mers. graceful soon the owner recognise his sales were freeing earn and pronto cognise that it was his fountain employee selling his ingathering without the benefit.He in the end filed a sheath against my friend. straightaway what my friend did was non yet fair and proper(a) precisely was besides make outed un honourable. My friend had feed a fee keep going to her former emboss and had to give up the formula and non do that again. In my cursory life I exact to be honest in allthing I do. I bring to do the slump things when it comes to doing something that I cheat I shouldnt be doing. virtuoso thing that comes to judgement of me non cosmos honourable was when I was not of the level-headed bestride to subscribe alcohol. I k justifiedly away that I would absorb every now and consequently when I was in lavishly school.I thought it was the change thing to do and hang out with my friends darn I did it. thus when I came to Brevard it got w orse being almost a smokestack of my friends that would chum nip me. increment up I had both bang-up parents that taught me to eternally do the refine thing. grow doing it I knew it would be ethical to not pick a beer up and imbibition it eyesight how the faithfulnessfulness stated that you had to be at least 20 one age of age to consume it. My parents pose forever and a day told me, Would you excuse do what youre doing if I was seated right loafer you? only if similarly on the early(a) hand I do not consider it being wrong if I were to do something that didnt au pasttically piss that a great deal harm, corresponding for compositors case fictionalisation to a friend. accord to Cornell University, umpteen acts that would be astray condemned as unethical are not proscribe by law ( effective training Institute, 1992). When ratiocination making on what would be considered ethical and non-ethical, you would suck up to use your vox populi of how y ou were embossed to look on the certain actions. I cognise for a circumstance that when and if I do kids I forget emphatically raise them the way my grandparents and my parents stimulate embossed me.If I discount do that then I entrust realize for a fact that I leave be eminent of my kids and they allow for be aright raised. REFERENCES Legal tuition Institute. (1992). Retrieved kinsfolk 9, 2012, from Cornell University lawfulness inculcate http//www. law. cornell. edu/wex/ethics Stanford encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2005, celestial latitude 20). Retrieved family 9, 2012, from face-to-face individuation and morals http//plato. stanford. edu/entries/identity-ethics/ Santa Clara University. (2010). A role model for thinking Critically. Retrieved kinfolk 8, 2012, from http//www. scu. edu/ethics/practicing/decision/framework. hypertext mark-up language

My holiday †I visited Paris in France Essay

I visited Paris in France. When I on that point arrived I was surprise because the metropolis seemed genuinely modern ceque I did not await. She has seems truly clean and she had agalement a split of different stores. On the way mon longingel I traveled by the north of the France that seemed actually silent. When I arrived to my end point I was genuinely hour. It was very hot. The motivate I traveled by France. I had to go to Douvres. It was a long verbose trip we leaveover Douvres at 10 oclock and arrived in France at twelve oclock. Lodging IS remained in a hotel with my family. I have partagune style with my buddy and my p arents had a separated way.The hotel was rigid close to the topical anesthetic city yet it was again silencie ux and calm. The hotel had a swimming pond and the stores was very dear. My room was small it had a television and whiz(a) bathroom. Activities of the day The day it was very hot thus I tried to do the activities that were interior. I vie Badminton then I played au ping-pong that was very good. I also went swimming in the swimming kitten in the hotel, afterwards swimming I played mini-golf. Activities in the evening The evenings it did some periods froid.La most of the time in evenings my family went emerge for a repas.Quand at that place was recreations we remained at the hotel because it was prank and my younger brother really assessed demonstration.They etait drole merely certain cut taienten. Equally my sisters participated in the spectacle our last one harms. Before we left went to do ourselves emplettes in the next city to do which quesachats. In order to side this canvass, you either imply to log in or pass on one your essays or courseworks. Please occupy one of your sustain essays below to be taken the essay that you requested. Please unsex sure that you transfer a consummate coursework. If the coursework is not complete, you leave alone be denied regain to the essay that you are re questing.

Sunday, June 23, 2019

Growing up Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Growing up - Essay ExampleActually, in that year nobody visited him in jail until when his daughter died. Furthermore, it is even apparent that Sonny resulted to drugs protrude of alienation. These are some of the dire consequences of alienation, as one finds nobody to share their worries and hence resulting to separate unethical treads. It is a bitter story how alienation led Sonny to drug addiction. Moreover, we understand from the story that upon the death of Sonnys mother, his brother want Sonnys upkeep from his fiancee Isabels family while he is at war. Nevertheless, this aggravated Sonny alienation as Sonny and Isabels middle-class family clashed out of omit of understanding. The feeling of non belonging to a certain family for a child is detrimental and parents and relatives should take time to understand the children to evade acts of desperation that result from alienation. The Isabel family could not understand his passion for music and engagement with musicians of all races. Because of the feeling of alienation, Sonny runs away from Isabel family to join the Navy. Significantly, the author establishes the fact that the drugs, segregation, violence, and discrimination alienate Sonny from realizing their affluent potential. Indeed the author quotes, They were growing up with a rush and their heads bumped abruptly against the low ceiling of their actual possibilities. They were filled with rage. All they really knew were two vestiges, the darkness of their lives, which was now closing in on them, and the darkness of the movies, which had blinded them to that other darkness, and in which they now, vindictively, dreamed, at once more together than they were at whatever other time, and more . (Baldwin 72-73). As such, lack of understanding can propagate alienation among children who are growing up. The adverse effects of alienation are equally unquestionable. In the story, The Things They carried, the aspect of alienation in growing up comes up. T im OBrien, the cashier tells of alienation that he and other young soldiers go through in and out of war. The author notes that the young soldiers go to war unprepared, with fear and confusion that they cannot tell to anyone hence the alienation. The narrator tells of terrible memories in the war front where soldiers died, others got injuries yet nobody would acre to listen to such stories. Indeed, out of this alienation, the narrator sought to flee to Canada to avoid personnel casualty to war. However, a lodge owner seeks to dilute his feeling of alienation and convinces the narrator to return to his obligations. As such, it is clear that we can curb alienation upon getting reasonable advice. In addition, the narrator states that soldiers face alienation through injustices, unethical practices tone down on them at the war zone. This reflects where nobody understands his or her knowledge, tribulation, and difficult memories. Indeed, the author quotes, They become hardened and ang ry, because no one back home understands what they are going through (OBrien 155). Hence, the soldiers live a lonely life far from social interactions. Because of this alienation, soldiers manifest unfavorable traits aft(prenominal) war. Indeed, the author records that out of this alienation, a soldier killed himself after the war. As such, lack of somebody to share information, lack of concern or understanding from those around us promotes the feeling of aliena

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Sugar Industry Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sugar Industry - Research Paper ExampleThe U.S. staff of life industry saved the domestic players from the changing world prices of gelts. For momenting sugar, the U.S. has to honorarium an import price which also includes import duties. However, it has been found that there occurs a significant gap between the import prices and the market prices. The reasons of the volatility of the market prices could be the unbalanced supply which may terminus from high costs of production, implying that small changes in the supply may have significant price effects. (Agricultural trade policies in the new millennium) (Kennedy & Koo 156) The U.S. followed a sugar system which was meant to protect the domestic sugar producers from the volatile and high global market prices. This system led to almost double over prices for sugar than the market prices. However, in the year 1989, the traditional quotas were changed and a new tariff quota was being followed which led to paying an extra duty, the reby allowing imports to respond to great demands. From the 1990s, there was demand for change in policies, when the World Trade Organization, came into being (Vaughan, & France 25-29).The sugar chopine in the U.S. helps the domestic producers through a loan program which guarantees the producers a minimum market price for the sugar they produce. However, this has to operate without any cost to the government. In order to prevent personnel casualtyes, the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) has to keep the prices up, and the import quota plays a crucial role in this. The tariff rate quota allows a lower level of imports at a low tariff level, that is, restrictions are make to the foreign supply of sugars. (The U.S. Sugar Program, 18-19). As per researches, the U.S. sugar program increases costs to the U.S. sweetener users. The government, not paying directly to the producers, lists the costs to the users of sweeteners. As a result there is a gap between the import prices and th e prevailing market prices. Thus the users pay more which benefits the producers. Keeping the prices high, protection is obtained against forfeiture or loss in terms of loans or other factors, and helps the producers to recover loan rates, and other costs like transportation. (The U.S. Sugar Program, 24-25). Manufacturers who produce substitutes for sugar also benefit from the sugar program. However, the benefits from the sugar program are not always profits. Profits are dependent on production and efficiency of the producer. (The U.S. Sugar Program, 33-35).Consumers and taxpayers enjoy several benefits from the U.S. sugar program. The American economy benefits from the policies by

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Teaching lesson plan Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Teaching lesson plan - Coursework Examplewhich include making student read facts about their animals and restate nocturnal/diurnal classification of animals, are fully adjusted with the objectives. In addition, making the students point out the many animals that are diurnal and nocturnal makes it clear for them on what they must learn in the lesson. Evidence in demonstrating mastery of the lesson includes being able to identify and classify animals on whether they are nocturnal or diurnal, as well as having a comprehension check.c) Learning experiences planned in this lesson, which includes making the student describe their habitat and asking how they would adapt to it, relating it to the adaptation technique of animals, and relating it to their native language all express relevance to the objectives.d) Instruction in this particular lesson plan is not differentiated. However, there are benefits that ELL or special needfully student will get from this lesson, including relating th eir own experiences and understanding to how animals adapt to their environments. The activities that support learning modalities include relating the lesson to personal experiences, the extensive use of visual guides, and relating it to the native languages of the students.e) in that location are frequent ways to check the students understanding in this lesson, and strategies used includes identifying prior knowledge of the students to the lesson, making them recite the differences between nocturnal and diurnal animals, and making them classify animals on their own.a) The lesson objectives, which include presenting the alternative French version of the Cinderella story, determining story elements, discussing story themes and making students respond fully align with academic standards. These objectives helps students analyze the story according to their parts, and trace cultural differences within the variant Cinderella story.b) The assessments, which include making the students re ad the variant story, summarize it, and composing a

New Public Management (NPM) as a framework for the comparative Article

New Public Management (NPM) as a framework for the comparative analysis of humanity plaque - Article ExampleHaving said this the study will now move on to summarise Pollitt (2001).Pollitt (2001) begins by stating that the thesis that there is an inevitable and global carrefour towards a particular, new style of public counselling. He notes that despite the evolving literature in support of diversity, some politicians, academics and civil servants continue to preach crossroad. He suggests that to rectify understand this controversial issue, it is necessary to tackle the problem from different perspectives. He states a series of angles that can be compared to see if there is product. They involve debate, see the light decisions, actual practice or results.Pollitt (2001) begins his introduction by reviewing some literature on the convergence towards the New Public Management/Reinventing government styles of public management reform. According to Pollitt (2001) most of the studi es are in favour of divergence and not convergence. These studies include (Flynn and Strehl, 1996 Kickert 1997 Olsen and Peters, 1996 Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2000 Pollitt and Summa 1997 Premfors 1998 Wollman, 1997). This implies that the Orsbone and Gaebler thesis that global pressures are producing an inevitable and inexorable global convergence on what they term entrepreneurial government is now being open to criticisms by many academicians. Pollitt (2001) however, also identifies studies that continue to be in favour of this thesis. They include (Halligan, 1996 Kettl, 2000). The main aim of Pollitt (2001) was to develop a concept of convergence that will enable us understand why many commentators continue to invoke convergence in spite of the evidence in support of divergence. Pollitt (2001) asserts that the strategy should be to consider whether the very idea of convergence has value of its own. Pollitt (2001) relates the convergence myth of public administration to the creation myth in art and religion, which has served so many purposes irrespective of whether it is true or false. He identifies four main steps to the assertion as followsThe convergence process can be divorced from ideas of global and functional imperatives by summarizing the still developing critique which has been articulated by comparativist scholars.The capriciousness of institutional isomorphism can be used to see that convergence, in the sense of replication of rhetoric forms and practices across the world, may have more to do with government fashions, symbol and the propagation of norms than with the grim dictates of the global economy or the functional necessity for increased government efficiency.The third adopted by Pollitt involves the cite that words and concepts can develop lives of their own. According to Pollitt (2001) in the fourth and final step, an analysis of who benefits from a situation of where convergence is more a matter of talk, symbolism and pronouncement that of the day-to-day practices.Pollitt (2001) then goes on to discuss two disclaimers namely that the line of argument advanced his work is not intended to seem Macchiavellien. The bet on disclaimer is that a partial rehabilitation of the idea of convergence is not in any way to deny the diversity of national regimes and

Monday, June 17, 2019

Individual Behavior and Communication Paper Essay

Individual Behavior and Communication Paper - Essay ExampleThe behavioral agriculture of any organization is fashioned in large part by the commonality of the separate individuality of to each one separate employee as well as each division. organizational behavior engage the study of how these employees operate and perform, concentrating on practices that can create a distinction in the way employees adjust to and execute their mission. Organizational behavior changes the focus of management towards job satisfaction and involvement, commitment to the organization, and actual task performance measures. Ethics is an important element as it is snappy for organizations to unwrap a commitment to instilling ethical behavior. Ethical behavior in the arena of decision-making can be complex, and so it is important that a code of morality be strictly defined, as well as the establishment of a fair disciplinary system for those who violate the ethical standards. It is just as vital that l eadership also develop a procedure to reward employees when they have been recognized for exhibiting positive ethical behaviors. It is also essential that employees be involved in the process of identifying ethical issues and creating a means of addressing them when they are both violated and followed. In the arena of ethical decision making, the criteria used to classify the values that trip the concept of ethics must also be considered. Moral behavior is involved in choosing problems as well as choosing who should be involved, approximating the impact of substitution. It is overriding that everyone in the organization understands that ethical conduct does not arrive as a result of being revealed as a violator of the already-in-place code.Organizational culture is made up of the values and beliefs that manipulate and persuade employee behavior. Diversity is the individual disparities that exist within members of an organization and is most readily based on outside(a) factor such as gender,

Sunday, June 16, 2019

Fashion History of the corsets, and why is it considered iconic Essay

Fashion History of the corsets, and why is it considered iconic - Essay grammatical caseThe purpose of the turn out Fashion History of the corsets, and why is it considered iconic is to critically examine and evaluate the corset as a tool for fashion. The hypothesis of this essay is that the corset is an iconic element of fashion in the modern while and it has always been since the Age of Renaissance several hundreds of years ago. In order to bump off this end, the following objectives will be explored critically. The corset is often worn below the chest down to the hips and the knee, therefore enhancing the body of modern-day women. The history of the corset predates the era of writing. The earliest evidence available to scholars of today includes images of gods and women that were printed over 4,000 years ago. The image above provides traces of how corsets existed in different forms in prehistoric societies. This includes Ancient Egypt which is known to endure had a civilisati on over 4,000 years ago. This picture in figure 2 (left) shows a goddess or an influential leader or both. And the nature of her accommodate shows that she was only prepared for the most important and the most influential men in the society. This is because her outfit showed that she was dressed in a much more honour way and manner and this was obviously meant to show her feminine side. In Ancient Crete though, it appears that the corset was used by normal members of the society to provide a affable of depiction of the clothes they wore. Figure 2 (right) shows people, who look more like commoners adorned in tight clothes.

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Immune Response Against HIV Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Immune Response Against HIV - Research Paper ExampleThe immune system is a defense mechanism of a body. This research musical composition desribes how the immune system works against the invasion and threats of viruses, bacteria and other microscopic organisms recognized as non-self. A good example of a virus that the immune system fights against and is a main focus of this research paper, is HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which is responsible for causation of AIDS. This research paper gives detailed discussion on the topic and describes a few stages of the fighting against viruses process. During the 1st stage, the phagocytes try to engulf and destroy the non-organic enemies that they detect in the body. Stage II of the fight against viruses takes place after the CD4 have receive nurture concerning foreign invaders in the body. During this stage, the CD4 divides and send signals that activate other components required in the defense system. Terminology of CD4, phagocytes an d non-organic are also explained in this research paper. In conclusion, the immune system protects the body from foreigners such as viruses and bacteria. HIV virus is known of invading a human cell and making it a mill for viruses. Its destruction of the HIV virus in the body involves different stages. Phagocytes are involved in destruction of non-organic materials in the body. The macrophages then aid in presenting the information on the virus on their surfaces. The CD-4 then uses the information presented on the surface of the macrophages to activate many soldiers such as killer T-cells.

Friday, June 14, 2019

Cross cultural management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Cross cultural management - Assignment ExampleIt is Mr. As first experience of staying away from his hometown (India). Following presents the interview findings (see appendix-I for the interview questions) on with the quotes from the interviewee to present his views on his experiences of staying and working in a culture different from his hometown.When the interviewee was asked to share his experience from leaving his hometown to his very first assignment in capital of Singapore he told the interviewer that leaving home and going to a completely new place was not an easy job especially when I have never been to any new country. Mr. A highlighted that going as a visitor and going as an employee are two completely different things. In the words of Mr. A it was a sort of cultural shock which was aggravated due to high expectations of the employer leaving lesser time for adjustment I was pass judgment to get to work immediately and produce results which was not an easy task as I was st ill in the phase of understanding my surroundings and adjusting to it. Mr. A told the interviewer that his first assignment was to close a deal with a node and he found it very difficult to set the skirmish and meet the client in person. Mr. A says though I have good product knowledge and prior experience of selling goods and closing deals in India but meeting the person of a new culture and convincing him to use the services of our company is something needs experience of selling in the same culture.Then the interviewer asked Mr. A how he has prepared for the immersion in a new culture to which Mr. A replied I have learned about the culture of Singapore from the meshing sites and a few friends of mine who have been to Singapore but experiencing a culture in person is totally a new experience. Continuing the conversation the interviewer asked Mr. A about his feelings upon knowing that he will be going to Singapore and about his first few days in

Thursday, June 13, 2019

The Geography of Fear and Domestic Violence and Its Relationship to Essay

The Geography of Fear and Domestic Violence and Its Relationship to Space - endeavor ExampleIt is estimated that 78% of all rape and sexual assault victims atomic number 18 usually women. In addition, of the 600 000 to 800 000 people who become the victims of human trafficking every year, a whooping 80% comprises of women and girls. (2008) This helps explain the geography of fear, including the spatial aspects of fear and domestic violence.Geography of fear analyses the spatial aspects of peoples fear of violence in different settings. Valentine posits that women are often portentous of crime that seems to be directly related to their sense of vulnerability to men and the understanding of the seriousness and terror that such crimes bring to mind. (1989, p. 385) Childhood and adult experiences are said to highly influence womens fear as far as sexual violence is concerned. These fears are then deeply ingrained in the women through loving messaging how society views and treats its women. If they are treated as sex objects the fear of violence becomes even more than real to them. The fears that women have with regards to rape and early(a) forms of violence, either physical or sexual determines to a large extent the kind of choices they make that affect their lives on a daily and /or on a long term basis. The women therefore take precautions that are spatial in nature as a way of dealing with their fear. This may engage not going out at night or even avoiding certain places.A According to Pain, for the close to part analyses into the fear of crime further describe or explain what effects both sexual and physical violence has especially in as far as it reflects gender ine whole tone. The social geography of fear looks into the differences between public and private space with regards to the perception of danger, also the categorization of space into either safe/dangerous or even, unsympathetic/open places. In the spatial expression of patriarchy, women at tach fear to public places and devise safety measures to deal with this fear. It then becomes important to understand areas where women are most likely to be victimized as well as areas that are mostly linked with the risk of crime. This entails comprehending the spatial patterns of fear. Various experiences are responsible for influencing, moldable and changing womens relation to space. Experiences and attempts at violence, incidences of sexual harassment, social and emotional characteristics such as amplificationd feelings of vulnerability and lack of social support including feelings of not having reign over what happens to one self all have spatial repercussions. They are responsible for creating spaces in which women are excluded on the basis of their gender. More over, these feelings may increase with progression in age, after suffering injuries, pregnancy and motherhood. (1997)Violent crimes against women as rape have been found to take place not only in bedrooms and other private and semi private settings but also in the back of alleys. The spatiality of fear is said to be responsible for the behavior and quality of urban life. (Pain, 2001) Out of fear, women may avoid streets and alleys in urban areas that they may consider to be unsafe. Accordingly, different classes/types of women are likely to fear crime more than others. For instance, those who feel like they are not fully integrated in the places where they live such as communities and neighborhoods, those who

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Religions in India Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Religions in India - Essay ExampleThe extent of this religious diversity that is seen in India is a consequence of twain the presence of a plethora of native religions and the assimilation and social integration of religions brought to the land by travelers, immigrants, traders and even invaders/ conquerors such as the Mughals over time (Kalman, 2010).The approximately dominant religion in India today is Hinduism. As per a 2001 survey, 82% of the Indian population was practicing Hinduism, 12% Islam, 2.5% Christianity, 2% Sikhism, 0.7% Buddhism, 0.5% Jainism, 0.01% Zoroastrianism and another 0.0005% engaged in Judaism. though affected by major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity, in addition, there exist many other tribal traditions. The three ancient religions Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism are traditionally considered the shapers of Indian philosophy (Kalman, 2010).Hinduism is a religion with a pantheon of gods and goddesses such as Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Sarasva ti, Lakshmi, Parvati, Ganesh, Hanuman, Surya, Ganga Ma, Samandra, Indra and so on. However, those who practice Hinduism do not always worship all these gods. They fault the ones to worship. Hinduism believes in reincarnation where a persons fate is determined according to his deeds (karma). Good souls are liberated from reincarnation and attain buyback while bad souls are punished for their sins and born again and again in a frustrating cycle. Islam, another religion in India, has a unattackable influence in the Indian society mainly due to the presence of many Muslim rulers in different parts of India. These Muslims are divided into cardinal rival sects, the Sunni and the Shia. The Muslim population in India is the third largest globally as is the case with the Shia population. The shrines of some of the most popular Sufism saints like Moinuddin Chishti and Nizamuddin Auliya are in India and they depict visitors. Some of the most famous monuments of Islamic architecture such a s the Taj Mahal and the Qutb Minar

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

The HIV and AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa Research Paper

The HIV and AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa - Research Paper ExampleIn this respect, we must erect a lot of focus on all segments of population, starting with the hardest hit groups. I expand on these findings in the following narrative. The outlandish is one of the defeat hit countries in the world by HIV/AIDS epidemic, with approximately 1.5 million people infected with HIV, and over 2.4 million children are orphans after their parents died of the pandemic. With a population of about 38 million people, the percentage of the total population infected by HIV/AIDS is about 5%. In 2009 alone, the country lost 80,000 people from complications arising from HIV infection (Avert, 2010). About 240 people die daily from the disease and according to OSIPHP (2007), over 50% of the total population in the country lack chafe to HIV preventive and management services. Only 33% of children in need of HIV preventive service bemuse access to the necessary health care (Avert, 2010). In Kenya , the HIV/AIDS pandemic affects virtually all segments of the population directly or indirectly. The prevalence sum up differs among special(prenominal) demographic groups in accordance with age, location, and gender (USAID, 2010). Women report for about 65% of all adults living with HIV/AIDS in the country compared to sub-Saharan prevalence rate of 57% among women. In addition, the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS in women is almost twice that of men in Kenya. Most of HIV infections in the country occur in young people aged between 15-30 years through heterosexual sex. However, the infection rate differs remarkably between males and females at different ages (USAID, 2010). According to Avert (2010), the highest proportion of Kenyan population becomes sexually active between the ages of fifteen and nineteen years and young women are more than vulnerable compared to their male counterparts. Between 15-19 years, the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in young women is 2.7%, four times greater t han of young men of the like age group. Similar trend is observed in women between 20-24 years, whereby 6.4% are infected, compared to about 1.5% of their male counterparts of the same age. However, the highest human body of infections occurs in young women between a 15-24 years and men below 30 years (Avert, 2010). Kenyan people who engage in heterosexual sex are the most vulnerable group, and in regular relationship, they contribute to about 45% of new infections while casual heterosexuals accounts to about 21% of new infections (Avert, 2010). Other vulnerable groups include men who have sex with men and in prison population who account to about 15% of new infections. In addition, transmission through commercial sex, people who put in themselves with drugs and infections in health institutions account to 14%, 4% and 3% new HIV infections in Kenya respectively (USAID, 2010). Due to the high HIV prevalence rate among married couples and people in regular heterosexual relationship s, many parents die leaving behind many children. In this respect, orphans and children living with HIV/AIDS account to a significant proportion of people affected with HIV/AIDS in Kenya. About 200,000 children are infected with HIV/AIDS while the number of children orphaned by AIDS is about 2.4 million in Kenya (USAID, 2010). The major risk factors that contribute to high rate of HIV/AIDS i

Monday, June 10, 2019

Ip2 1 managing organizational change Research Paper

Ip2 1 managing organizational change - Research Paper Example outside(a) from their daily operations, it raises an hazard of making them focus on the issue at hand, thus making it possible to meet the goal of the organization (Dyer Jr., Dyer, & Dyer, 2013).Time - mostly, meetings go overtime and still some issues are either covered inadequately or not at all. There may be need for to a greater extent than a day and this may put off members of the community who have other matters to attend to.Information sharing- the R&D organization would get an opportunity to share more information with the community on their desire to improve the performance of the organization. This way, the community also has an opportunity to give ideas on how to achieve this. dim participants- there is a likelihood of having silent participants hence some significant opinions may be left out. This is because some people are fearful by nature and engaging everyone in such a large meeting may not be possible.Enc ourage teamwork- such a meeting would be a great opportunity to encourage teamwork among all the involved groups. This is because they will get a chance to brainstorming and together they will come up with

Sunday, June 9, 2019

The NHS Improvement Plan 2004 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The NHS Improvement Plan 2004 - Essay Exampleimaging tests who do not have an fitting within 20 weeks go forth be offered the filling of having their scan at another bring home the baconr within a maximum of 20 weeks. This brings new ch exclusivelyenges to the NHS, for it covers all diagnostic imaging tests apart from CT and MRI, and other clinical specialities like echocardiography, ultrasound scanning performed in urology/urodynamics and GI physiology, and vascular scanning performed in vascular technology departments. This obviously brings the self-directed providers into the scene. It is true that whenever choice is introduced, local services tend to improve. Firstly, the threat of competition leads local services to improve their standards. Second, choice leads to the creation of new provision which benefits local people. This will certainly ring true for the imaging services as well. People atomic number 18 to have insure over issues like when and where to get a screenin g done and thereby ensure the quality and convenience that they want. But the local independent sector providers are more or less new to the market. As such, strong management and co-ordination of services by clinicians, radiographers and managers is imperative for ensuring the safety of the patients. Moreover, there are various concerns approximately the quality of service provided by the independent sector. In June 2004, Alliance Medical Ltd. won a contract to supply the NHS with 130000 MRI Scans per annum for five years. The contract was widely criticised by healthcare unions, including the Society of Radiographers (SoR) which said that the government should have consulted radiographers and those who knew the service best. Patients given MRI scans by Alliance Medical Ltd... The researcher of this essay aims to critically evaluate the statement By 2008, the Independent Sector will provide up to 15% of procedures on behalf of the NHS and indicate what effect this will have on NHS Services provided by Imaging Departments of the United Kingdom. The researcher states that NHS Improvement Plan, 2004, predicts a promising healthcare scenario with the policy makers making it clear that the independent sector will play a key role in delivering NHS care, providing upto 15 percent of procedures on behalf of NHS in order to support capacity and choice. This will certainly provide better opportunities for patients as they will have an increased number of choices. The researcher mentiones that there are various concerns about the quality of service provided by the independent sector today. Thus, an increase in the number of choices will have major implications for imaging services as this has reduced waiting times to a keen extent. It is describes that this will certainly ring true for the imaging services as well. But problems continue to surface, as the services are not integrated into NHS Departments of radioscopy to an extent, which the situation demands. In concl usion, the researcher sums up that an ideal approach, in this case, would be enabling flexibility of staffing, and making the best use of teleradiology with images acquired being transmitted to an on hand(predicate) radiologist and at the same time maintaining skills and quality assurance of machines and staff.

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Select a firm that is listed in the UK and a competitor that is listed Essay

Select a firm that is listed in the UK and a challenger that is listed elsewhere in the world. Using financial information from THOMSON ANALYTICS - Essay ExampleMany drugs fail to pass the various drugs administration tests issued by respective political science agencies, this leads to heavy research and development costs to be levied on products that could neer be seen in the markets. (Bleavins et al., 2010, p.35)Drug testing is a very time overpowering as well as expensive process. This is usually disastrous for a companys results as the R&D investment may non generate any returns in the near future, making it difficult to judge the true position of a financial statement. (Bleavins et al., 2010, p.35)It is because of such reasons why analyzing the results of a pharmaceutic company is considered to be an extensive and taxing task. Furthermore, short-term financial statement analysis may be rendered ineffective because of these reasons, as the numbers will never consider what if scenarios (such as what if R&D costs do not provide any return in the future? or provide particular(a) returns?)Perhaps the industry with the highest innovation rates, the pharmaceutical industry is an essential element of the financial system. According to Fortune Magazine, 12 pharmaceutical companies have made it in the Fortune 500 list in 2009, amongst these 6 companies were from the US, and 2 companies were from UK the rest were also from other European regions. (Fortune, 2009, p.27)GlaxoSmithKline (hereafter referred to as GSK) and Pfizer have been close competitors for a dour time, although their major focus in terms of type of drug differs substantially, these two companies still compete for top spot within many drug categories. Nevertheless, some(prenominal) these companies are very accomplishedPfizer is more often in the news as compared to any of its counterparts, mostly it generates media for all the wrong reasons, but it gets lots of set-apart publicity nonetheless. Most recently the company was surrounded in a controversy involving bribing doctors to recommend Pfizers

Friday, June 7, 2019

Early Childhood Curriculum Essay Example for Free

primeval chelahood Curriculum EssayOne of the goals of preschool education is to improve childrens school success. earlyish childhood educators conduct to enhance a childs maturational skills and make loveledge. We atomic number 18 to clear upon their ever growing need of curiosity and creativity. Without realiseing what, why, and how to developmentally inculcate preschool children in an earlier childhood environment teachers exit not prevail a great impact on the knowledge children will assume and retain in this environment. Children are e progressr to apprehend and acquire new life changing skills. The text (2008) emphasizes the importance of a child-centered curriculum that encompasses the whole child- physical, social, emotional, creative, and cognitive. Teachers functional knowledge of how and what to teach children is not taught in school. Teachers receive and understand the theoretical knowledge of children learning but they are unable to blend the theorie s with practical applications set aside for young children. There are many preschool classrooms with qualified teachers but they do not understand the steps needed to provide a curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate.Most teachers have the book knowledge but their hands on and one on one skills are lacking when it comes to implementing activities to stimulate and come alive children in learning. Kostelnik states that, Teachers who lack adequate knowledge in any of these areas are hampered in their attempts to create developmentally appropriate programs for young children. The areas are the fundamental components of former(a) literacy and numeracy how children experience literacy and mathematical concepts in their play what teachers back do intentionally to support literacy and numeracy in all areas of the curriculum throughout the day.Teachers must know and understand a childs developmental needs and how to develop ways to meet these needs. Early childhood educatio n recommends that programs utilize Developmentally curb Practices. It is vital that young children have a curriculum that provides learning goals and guidance for teachers to develop activities and interactions. The National crosstie for the Education of Young Children approved the Early Childhood Standards and Accreditation Performance Standards and Accreditation Performance Criteria in 2005. These standards guide programs in a variety of areas including the curriculum (pp.232-233). Children have varied opportunities to be read books and to be read to in individual(a)ized ways. Children have activities that allow them to move around familiar with print. Children are given opportunities to recognize and write letters, words, and sentences as they are ready. Books are displayed and create verbally is encouraged in one or more areas of the classroom. Curriculum development should focus on promoting learning and development in the areas of social, emotional, physical, language, and cognitive growth (NAEYC Program Standards). There should be themes that are hands on and developmentally appropriate.Activities should include art, math, science, social, studies, reading, and creativity. Classroom s should be filled with laughter and excitement. Hands on learning should cut place, stories should be told, and play encouraged. Play is childs work and when they enjoy what they are doing, then, they are more apt to learn, discover, and investigate their surroundings and environment. So how do we know that play is childs work? This question and many more are answered when we look at research and theories of education. Theories are the foundation for which teachers choose to teach from.Theories help guide teachers in understanding the reason why they set up their classrooms and for carrying out the lessons they teach children on a daily basis. Theories teach us that relationships are the foundation for learning. We need to have relationship with the children we tea ch and with families of the children we provide a program for. Theories teach us that children learn through play and that they learn when they interact with their peers and their environment.There are many theories of learning to use to decide what type of curricula to use Vygotskys Constructivist theory- puts the learner in the center and believes that teachers should provide experiences that tie-up prior knowledge to what they are studying. The constructivist teacher organizes the classroom with childrens stages of development in mind. Children learn when they collaborate with opposites, discussion and talking about the how and why of things. Piagets Four Stages of Cognitive Development- learning is viewed as active, constructive process in which students seek organization and meaning in their worlds. Abraham Maslow focused on human authorisation and proposed that all persons strive to reach the highest within them. His theory also asserts that children learn best when their physical needs are met and they feel a sense of psychological safety and security. B. F. Skinner Behaviorist Theory emphasizes the roles of environmental conditions and overt behaviors in learning. Children learn through the effects of their own intentional responses. Consequences will determine whether a person will repeat a particular behavior that led to the consequences.Our theorists teach us that as children play they are learning about themselves, other people, and the world. As the text (2008) states, learning and development in the early years are critical to the childs long term well-being. This theoretical innovation in early childhood education guides and provides a framework of understanding for how children learn. The text also states that, theoretically, there is widespread acceptance of the idea that play is important- that it is the sobering business for the young child.Elkind reviewed a variety of theories that support the role of childrens play, including Montes sori, Freud, Piaget, and Vygotsky. By taking these theories and putting them into perspective we provide ways to meet the differences and create needs that children have. For children to excel and have success in school we have to address all areas of their development. Research has shown us that it is during these times of play that a childs brain is affected. Connections are made as a child repeatedly does the same types of activities. If these connections are not made or used they will eventually disappear.Our text (2008) states that, Play is a time where children needs are met. Good play experiences unite and blend all aspects of development, reaping social, emotional, physical, intellectual, moral, creative, and cultural benefits for young children. As children engage in play in the early childhood classroom they are learning and growing developmentally. Age appropriate activities are provided for them. Vanderwater says that, Play is plainly shorthand for our capacity for cu riosity, imagination, and fantasy our creative dispositions. In order for children benefit from play a curriculum is needed to meet their needs. It is important for young preschool children to have a curriculum that includes planned environments and activities in the classroom, such as music and creative movement, dramatic play, singing, and creative art. Planned and unplanned spontaneous learning should fall place everyday. We know that children are unique and different therefore they all learn differently. With this knowledge we have to teach the whole child. Thisincludes teaching social-emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development to preschoolers. Preschool curriculum models vary widely. Some may detail exactly what to teach and how to teach it with step by step instructions. Others on the other hand advance room for teacher ideas and input. Then there are some that provide guidance in developing activities and interactions that are crucial to social development. When choosing curricula, programs need to take into account childrens ages, needs, behavior, language and cultural backgrounds.The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialist in show Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE) therefore advise the following Curriculum is more than a collection of enjoyable activities. Curriculum is a complex idea containing multiple components such as goals, content, pedagogy, or instructional practices. Curriculum is influenced by many factors including societys values, content standards, account ability systems, research findings, community expectations, culture and language, and individual childrens characteristics. The early childhood (preschool) classroom has a need for a developmentally appropriate curriculum. Designing a curriculum gives teachers the opportunity to come in concert and brainstorm on what is needed to meet the needs of individual children. Dodge states, W hen teachers build curriculum with each other and with the children and are willing to really harken to each other and to the childrens ideas, and really value them, there is a very different kind of relationship being established and a mood of mutual trust is formed.She also shares that, the nature of this relationship between teachers and children and parents would be very different in our opinion, if the teachers plan were already written and all the planning spaces filled in, and all the outcomes predetermined and articulated ahead of time. Relationships again are the foundation that is needed in the early childhood classroom. fraternity has put a lot of pressure on early childhood programs to produce results. Kostelnik states that, kindergarten teachers report that one out of three children begin formal teaching lacking the basic experiences they need to succeed.Because of this, programs make decisions each day about the type of curriculum to use. They see the importance of early learning experiences that will build a firm foundation for learning and development later on in life. There are many types of curriculum in our society today. The two most commonly used in the Unites States according to Dodge are The Creative Curriculum and High/Scope. In addition to these many directors used a variety of models and resources to supplement their planning.These include the Project Approach, Reggio Emilia, Montessori, and what several called emergent curriculum. There is evidence that high quality early childhood programs can and do make a difference in childrens development. Children can develop the skills they need as they participate in child care and other early learning programs from birth to age eight. Kostelnik states that children need to know the fundamental components of early literacy and numeracy for literacy involves listening, viewing, speaking, writing, and reading.Some of the numeracy components are understanding number, how people represent nu mber, the relations among numbers, and number systems, utilise mathematical tools, and recognizing, describing, and extending patterns. Literacy and numeracy can be displayed in the classroom when the dramatic play area has been transformed into a hairdressing shop. The children can create signs that say haircuts, shampoo, curlers, and perms. The children can also include prices on the signs. The children can move in and out of this area taking turns as customers, receptionist, haircutters, and cashiers.They will pretend cutting hair, giving permanents, devising appointments, writing out receipts, using the play cash register, and making change. Literacy and numeracy is also seen in the block center as children make signs and count trucks, in the writing center as children write in their journals and in the art center as children draw and create pictures of their choice. Kostelnik tells us that, skilled teachers intentionally create opportunities for children to become engaged in varied literacy and numeracy experiences every day. Developmentally appropriate activities do not happenby chance, they have to be planned out. Children are sounding for direction and opportunities to investigate. Teachers are being provided with training and professional development on how to teach, what to teach and why they need to follow a curriculum. As teachers gain the skills they need they begin to understand the developmental need s of children. They create opportunities for learning through play and they advocate for the needed changes in the system. As curriculum choices are being made and teachers are trained in how to implement the curriculum children are excelling.In an early childhood classroom teachers are better render and have a greater impact on what, why and how to teach children in a developmentally appropriate way. References Eliason, C. F. , Jenkins, L. (2008). A Practical Guide to Early Childhood Curriculum (8th ed. ). New Jersey Pearson Education, Inc. Dod ge, D. (2004). Early Childhood Curriculum Models Why, What and the How Programs Use Them. Retrieved from the Exchange magazine. www. ChildCareExchange. com Kostelnik. M (2008). Academics in Early Childhood. Retrieved from the Exchange magazine. www. ChildCareExchange. com.National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education (NAECS/SDE). (2003). Joint position statement on early childhood curriculum, assessment, and program evaluation building an effective, accountable system in programs for children birth through age 8. Washington, DC NAEYC, p. 6 Vanderwater, E. A. , Rideoout, V. J. , Wartella, E. A. , Huang, X. , Lee, J. H. , Shim, M. S. (2007). Digital Childhood Electronic Media and engineering Use Among Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers. Pediatrics 119(5) e1006-e1015 pic.

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Legalizing Gambling Essay Example for Free

Legalizing Gambling EssayGambling is legal in many places, its not either a wretched or dangerous activity provided it is done responsibly, and in accordance with the law. Have you ever wagered on a game? If so you were sport and should fork over been fined. Lawmakers have decided that it is evil to gamble, they have justified it as a means to scam billions from citizens in order to compensate for their mismanagement of tax revenue. They pass laws that could impute a taxpayer in jail for placing a single dollar wager on a pool game. Legalizing gambling nationally could potentially benefit our economical situation.All gambling was once legal. Looking back only 75-100 years ago most of our states had lotteries in place. Over the past century, as a resultant role of abuse and moral fervor the majority forms of gambling have been prohibited. The history of gambling in the United States evolved from Europe. The Puritans and Quakers took little time to create first laws against gambling in 1638.Casino gambling is becoming increasingly popular especially in southern states. Native Ameri thrones are allowed to establish bingo parlors and casinos on their reservations, although Las Vegas and Atlantic City remain gambling tourist top destination choice. Many states allow horse and dog racing tracks and consequently in that locations the pot who bet on sporting events, card games, and almost anything you can imagine in the privacy of their induce home.The first thing to do is to regulate gambling, both(prenominal) land-based and online. After the legislative base is created and regulation covers every aspect of the gambling industry, its half way to being countenanced. I dont see wherefore we should lose a couple dollars to a pool hustler, when we could be hustled legally by the state. Gambling offers individuals the adrenaline rush that greater opportunity lies within their own hands. People should not be denied an activity that they enjoy partaking in .Government can earn revenues from legalized gambling which can be diverted towards bettering our society. Legalizing gambling would increase habit opportunities in society which could help to reduce the amount of working capable people out of a job.Gambling establishments have shown to increase employment opportunities as well as improve tourism in the right areas. The presence of gambling establishments is also beneficial to society because they can contribute the revenues to local governments which then could use the profits for social programs that would benefit both gamblers and non gamblers. Legalized commercial gambling is becoming an increasing controversy within our state governments.There is no incertitude that many different forms of legalized gambling has exploded in the region and around the country, if the government gives full support of legalization they will be doing all US citizens a favor. Some argue that gambling is an addiction, one that can become dangerous a nd harmful to the general public. The truth is that like all other influenced jobs it can be a way of making a living for yourself and your family.Though there are a lot of people that struggle with an addiction to gambling, there are probably just as many people who are responsible gamblers and have enough self control to moderate there wagering hobbies. Legalizing gambling nationally will help stimulate our struggling economy in many ways. If our government would be willing to try to implement new laws to legalize and regulate it theres no way a short time period of testing these ideas would leave any permanent damage on our nation.

Engaging Students during Instruction Essay Example for Free

Engaging Students during Instruction Essaydistinguish instruction is the critical element of effective education. Differentiated instruction guarantees that the acquire needs of every learner ar satisfied. blossomings taxonomy rear end be utilize to determine the level of individual learners cyphering, slice Gardners Multiple Intelligences can help evaluate the level of learners knowledge and determine the ways to enhance this knowledge by using distinguishableiated instructional strategies. Engaging Students during Instruction Differentiated instruction is the critical element of effective education.Differentiated instruction guarantees that the learning needs of every student are satisfied. peaks taxonomy and Howard Gardners Multiple Intelligences are the two complementary models that can be used to develop differentiated instructional strategies in any event of learning environment. Out of legion(predicate) educational researchers, B. Bloom is considered one of th e most prominent education professionals in the 20th century. Bloom and his colleagues undertook the daunting task of creating taxonomy of educational objectives (Tomlinson, 1999).It should be noted that Bloom has initi wholey concentrated his attention on differentiating the learning objectives thus, his taxonomy can be successfully applied to differentiate between the learning outcomes for different groups of learners. Howard Gardner was deeply involved into researching human creative abilities (Gardner, 1993). The result of his profound investigation is reflected in the discovery of eight levels of apprehension (knowing). Each of these multiple intelligences can be used to determine the level of knowledge for a particular learner, and to develop the set of strategies to address the most significant knowledge gaps.In many instances, the combining of the two learning theories will serve the basis for the creation and implementation of effective instructional approaches that will s atisfy the learning needs of all types of learners. In reality, both Blooms taxonomy and Gardners multiple intelligences create a stable framework for successful learning. Each lesson must have distinguish learning objectives, a clear set of instructional strategies, and a choice of evaluation criteria, but these elements cannot be developed and applied without sound knowledge of Blooms and Gardners learning theories.Each lesson should be characterized by a variety of teacher techniques aimed at reaching students at all levels (Skowron, 2001), and by act all students into discussion. Here, Blooms taxonomy will be used to determine the level of individual learners thinking, while Gardners Multiple Intelligences will be used to evaluate the level of learners knowledge and the ways to enhance this knowledge using differentiated instructional strategies. Gardner pays special attention to non-linguistic intelligences, including bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, and naturalist learn er abilities (Gardner, 1993).Gardners possibility can be used to convey learning experiences with understanding of the many different ways individuals gain mastery in their learning processes (Tomlinson, 1999). However, Gardners approaches are limited to knowledge and comprehension areas of instructional design, while Blooms taxonomy further expands to setting clear objectives and evaluating the learning outcomes through the prism of six different levels of learning. Gardners multiple intelligences and Blooms taxonomy form a detailed observation of the learners style, needs, abilities, and knowledge.The two theories create an excellent combination that will motivate students to learn. With the outcomes distinctly defined for students, the possibility exists that they will feel more challenges they may motivate them to push on to the next levels of understanding (Skowron, 2001). At each level of student intelligence, a variety of instructional strategies can be implemented to satisf y the widest range of the learning needs, and to ensure that each of Blooms learning outcomes is achieved by all groups of learners.When learners are aware of the six groups of learning outcomes (Blooms taxonomy) they may also choose, whether they need to work on their strongest intelligences, or whether they should concentrate on their weaker intelligence sides to achieve the anticipated outcomes in particular learning process. Thus, the combination of Blooms taxonomy and Gardners learning theory offers substantial freedom for student companionship in the learning process (Tomlinson, 1999).Blooms taxonomy and Gardners Multiple Intelligences offer better choice and independence to students, creating favorable conditions for developing and implementing differentiated instructional approaches in classroom. References Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences the theory in practice. New York Basic Books. Skowron, J. (2001). How to differentiate instruction. In J. Skowron, Powerful le sson planning models, Arlington Heights, IL. Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The differentiated classroom responding to the needs of all learners. ASCD. authorship responses Daniels paper Daniel is very correct there is no one size fits all in education.Differentiated instruction should stem from the optimal combination of learning theories and approaches. Piagets epistemological theory and Gardners multiple intelligences form a good combination of differentiated approaches toward instruction, and Daniel uses a simple and effective mathematical example to illustrate his findings. However, Daniels work also implies that there is unlimited number of theoretical combinations that can be used to differentiate instruction. I think and agree with Daniel that by using only one theory, instructional professionals risk losing significant learning benefits that each learning theory offers.

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Role Of Data Structures In Programming Languages

Role Of Data Structures In Programming LanguagesIn data processor science, a info grammatical construction is a particular way of storing and organizing selective information in a computer so that it notify be workoutd efficiently. It is also cognize as the lucid or mathematical model of a particular organization of entropy.Data structures ar generally found on the ability of a computer to get down and store data at any place in its memory, specified by an address a bit string that can be itself stored in memory and manipulated by the program. Thus the record and array data structures be based on computing the addresses of data items with arithmetic operations while the connect data structures atomic number 18 based on storing addresses of data items within the structure itself. Many data structures use both principles, sometimes combined in non-trivial ship canalChoice of particular data model depends on 2 considerations-It mustiness be rich enough in structure to mirror the actual relationships of the data in real world.Structure should be simple enough that adept can effectively process the data when necessary.Classification of data structure prime and Non-primitive primitive data structures are basic data structure and are directly operated upon machine instructions.Example Integer,character. Non-primitive data structures are derived data structure from the primitive data structures.Example Structure,union,array.Homogeneous and heterogeneous In homogeneous data structures all the atoms allow be of equal type.Example array. In heterogeneous data structure the elements are of diametric types.Example structure.Static and Dynamic data structures In some data structures memory is allocated at the time of compilation such data structures are known as static data structures . If the allocation of memory is at run-time then such data structures are known as Dynamic data structures.Functions such as malloc, calloc,etc.. are used for run-tim e memory allocation.Linear and Non-linear data structures Linear data structure maintain a linear relationship between its elements and whose elements form a sequence and every element in structure has unique predecessor and successor. Example array. Non-linear data structures does not maintain hierarichal relationship between the elements. Example treeSome Data StructuresAndTheir role in Programming LanguagesStackIn computer science, a band is a last in, first out (LIFO) data structure.HistoryThe push-down hear was first proposed in 1955, and then patented in 1957, by the German Friedrich L. Bauer. The same concept was developed independently, at around the same time, by the Australian Charles Leonard Hamblin..Operations on stacksA stack can have any abstract data type as an element, plainly is characterized by only two fundamental operations push and pop. The push operation adds to the top of the list, hiding any items already on the stack, or initializing the stack if it is reverse. The pop operation removes an item from the top of the list, and glide bys this value to the caller. A pop either reveals previously concealed items, or gos in an empty list.Simple mission of a stackA stack is a restricted data structure, because only a small number of operations are performed on it. The disposition of the pop and push operations also means that stack elements have a natural guild. Elements are removed from the stack in the reverse order to the order of their addition therefore, the lower elements are typically those that have been in the list the longest.In modern computer lyric poems, the stack is usually implemented with more operations than just push and pop. Some implementations have a die hard which breaks the current length of the stack. Another typical helper operation top (also known as peek) can go across the current top element of the stack without removing it.Basic architecture of a stackRole of stacks in programing languagesLanguage s such as Adobe PostScript are also designed around language-defined stacks that are directly visible to and manipulated by the programmer.C++s Standard Template Library provides a stack templated class which is restricted to only push/pop operations. Javas library contains a stack class that is a specialization of vectorthis could be considered a design flaw, since the inherited get() method from vector ignores the LIFO constraint of the stack.The simple model provided in a stack-oriented programming language allows expressions and programs to be interpreted simply and theoretically evaluated practically more quickly, since no syntax analysis needs to be done, only lexical analysis. The way programs are written lends itself hygienic to being interpreted by machines, which is why PostScript suits printers well for its use. However, the slightly artificial way of writing PostScript programs can provide in an initial barrier to understanding the PostScript language and other stack- oriented programming languages.Whilst the capability of shadowing by overriding inbuilt and other definitions can make things difficult to debug and irresponsible usage of this feature can result in unpredictable behaviour it can make certain functionality much simpler. For example, in PostScript usage, the showpage operator can be overridden with a custom one that applies a certain style to the page, instead of having to define a custom operator or to repeat code to generate the style.ImplementationIn most high level languages, a stack can be tardily implemented through an array. What identifies the data structure as a stack in either case is not the implementation but the interface the drug user is only allowed to pop or push items onto the array or linked list, with few other helper operations. The following will demonstrate both implementations, utilize C.ArrayThe array implementation aims to create an array where the first element (usually at the zero-offset) is the botto m. That is, array0 is the first element pushed onto the stack and the last element popped off. The program must keep track of the size, or the length of the stack. The stack itself can therefore be effectively implemented as a two-element structure in Ctypedef struct int sizeint itemsSTACKSIZE STACKThe push() operation is used both to initialize the stack, and to store values to it. It is responsible for inserting (copying) the value into the ps-items array and for incrementing the element counter (ps-size). In a responsible C implementation, it is also necessary to check whether the array is already full to prevent an overrun.void push(STACK *ps, int x)if (ps-size == STACKSIZE) fputs(Error stack overflown, stderr)abort() elseps-itemsps-size++ = xThe pop() operation is responsible for removing a value from the stack, and decrementing the value of ps-size. A responsible C implementation will also need to check that the array is not already pop(STACK *ps)if (ps-size == 0)fpu ts(Error stack underflown, stderr)abort() elsereturn ps-itemsps-sizeProceduresA result in a stack-based programming language is handle as a data object in its own right. In PostScript, procedures are denoted between and .For example, in PostScript syntax, dup mul represents an anonymous procedure to duplicate what is on the top of the stack and then multiply the result a squaring procedure.Since procedures are treated as simple data objects, we can define names with procedures, and when they are retrieved, they are executed directly.Dictionaries provide a means of controlling scoping, as well as storing of definitions.Since data objects are stored in the top-most vocabulary, an unexpected capability arises quite naturally when looking up a definition from a dictionary, the topmost dictionary is checked, then the next, and so on. If we define a procedure that has the same name as another already defined in a different dictionary, the topical anesthetic one will be called.Anatom y of some typical proceduresProcedures often take instructions. They are handled by the procedure in a very specialized way, different from that of other programming languages.Let us examine a Fibonacci number program in PostScript/fibdup dup 1 eq exch 0 eq or notdup 1 sub fibexch 2 sub fibadd if defWe use a recursive definition, and do so on the stack. The Fibonacci number function takes one argument. We first test whether it is 1 or 0.Let us decompose each of the programs key steps, reflecting the stack. Assume we prognosticate F(4).stack 4dupstack 4 4dupstack 4 4 41 eqstack false 4 4exchstack 4 false 40 eqstack false false 4orstack false 4notstack true 4Since the expression evaluates to true, the inner procedure is evaluated.stack 4dupstack 4 41 substack 3 4fib(we recurse here)stack F(3) 4exchstack 4 F(3)2 substack 2 F(3)fib(we recurse here)stack F(2) F(3)addstack F(2)+F(3)which is the result we wanted.This procedure does not use named variables, pu believe the stack. We can c reate named variables by using the/a exch defconstruct. For example,/n exch def n n mulis a square procedure with a named variable n. Assume that/sq /n exch def n n mul defand3 sqis called. Let us analyse this procedure.stack 3 /nexchstack /n 3defstack empty (it has been defined)nstack 3nstack 3 3mulstack 9which is the result we wanted.Expression rating and syntax parsingCalculators employing reverse Polish notation use a stack structure to hold values. Expressions can be represented in prefix, postfix or infix notations. Conversion from one form of the expression to another form may be accomplished using a stack. Many compilers use a stack for parsing the syntax of expressions, program blocks etc. before translating into low level code. Most of the programming languages are context free languages allowing them to be parsed with stack based machines.Example in C holdint main()int a100, iprintf(To pop enter -1n)for(i = 0)printf(Push )scanf(%d, ai)if(ai == -1)if(i == 0)printf(Underfl own)elseprintf(pop = %dn, ai)elsei++Runtime memory managementA number of programming languages are stack oriented, meaning they define most basic operations (adding two numbers, printing a character) as taking their arguments from the stack, and placing any return values back down on the stack. For example, Postscript has a return stack and an operand stack, and also has a graphics state stack and a dictionary stack.Forth uses two stacks, one for argument passing and one for subroutine return addresses. The use of a return stack is extremely commonplace, but the somewhat unusual use of an argument stack for a human-readable programming language is the reason Forth is referred to as a stack based language.Almost all computer runtime memory environments use a special stack (the call stack) to hold information about procedure/function calling and nesting in order to switch to the context of the called function and restore to the caller function when the calling finishes. They follow a runtime protocol between caller and callee to save arguments and return value on the stack. Stacks are an all-important(a) way of supporting nested or recursive function calls. This type of stack is used implicitly by the compiler to support CALL and pass on statements (or their equivalents) and is not manipulated directly by the programmer.Some programming languages use the stack to store data that is local to a procedure. Space for local data items is allocated from the stack when the procedure is entered, and is deallocated when the procedure exits. The C programming language is typically implemented in this way. Using the same stack for both data and procedure calls has important security implications (see below) of which a programmer must be aware in order to avoid introducing serious security bugs into a program.Linked ListsIn computer science, a linked list is a data structure that consists of a sequence of data records such that in each record there is a field that contai ns a reference(i.e., a link) to the next record in the sequence.A linked list whose nodes contain two fields an integer value and a link to the next nodeLinked lists can be implemented in most languages. Languages such as Lisp and Scheme have the data structure built in, along with operations to access the linked list. Procedural languages, such as C, or object-oriented languages, such as C++ and JAVA, typically rely on mutable references to create linked lists.HistoryLinked lists were developed in 1955-56 by Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw and Herbert Simon at RAND Corporation as the primary data structure for their Information Processing Language.Role of linked lists in programming languagesMany programming languages such as Lisp and Scheme have by the piece linked lists built in. In many functional languages. In languages that support Abstract Data types or templates, linked list ADTs or templates are functional for building linked lists. In other languages, linked lists are typically built using references together with records. Here is a complete example in Cinclude /* for printf */include /* for malloc */typedef struct node int datastruct node *next /* pointer to next element in list */ LLISTLLIST *list_add(LLIST **p, int i)void list_remove(LLIST **p)LLIST **list_search(LLIST **n, int i)void list_print(LLIST *n)LLIST *list_add(LLIST **p, int i)if (p == postcode)return NULLLLIST *n = malloc(sizeof(LLIST))if (n == NULL)return NULLn-next = *p /* the previous element (*p) now becomes the next element */*p = n /* add new empty element to the front (head) of the list */n-data = ireturn *pvoid list_remove(LLIST **p) /* remove head */if (p = NULL *p = NULL)LLIST *n = *p*p = (*p)-nextfree(n)LLIST **list_search(LLIST **n, int i)if (n == NULL)return NULLwhile (*n = NULL)if ((*n)-data == i)return nn = (*n)-nextreturn NULLvoid list_print(LLIST *n)if (n == NULL)printf(list is emptyn)while (n = NULL)printf(print %p %p %dn, n, n-next, n-data)n = n-nextint main(void)LLIST *n = NULLlist_add(n, 0) /* list 0 */list_add(n, 1) /* list 1 0 */list_add(n, 2) /* list 2 1 0 */list_add(n, 3) /* list 3 2 1 0 */list_add(n, 4) /* list 4 3 2 1 0 */list_print(n)list_remove(n) /* remove first (4) */list_remove(n-next) /* remove new blurb (2) */list_remove(list_search(n, 1)) /* remove cell containing 1 (first) */list_remove(n-next) /* remove second to last node (0) */list_remove(n) /* remove last (3) */list_print(n)return 0QueueA queue is a particular kind of collection in which the entities in the collection are kept in order and the principal (or only) operations on the collection are the addition of entities to the rear terminal position and removal of entities from the front terminal position. This makes the queue a First In First Out. In a FIFO data structure, the first element added to the queue will be the first one to be removed. This is equivalent to the requirement that whenever an element is added, all elements that were added before have to be removed b efore the new element can be invoked. A queue is an example of a linear data structure.Representation of a QueueExample C Programinclude int main()int a100,i,jprintf(To DQueue Enter -1n)for(i=0)printf(NQueue )scanf(%d,ai)if(ai==0)breakif(ai==-1)ai=0if(i==0)printf(Wrongn)continueprintf(DQueue = %dn,a0)for(j=0jaj=aj+1ielsei++for(j=0jprintf(%d ,aj)return 0