Thursday, February 28, 2019
MKTG 390, Exam 3 1. Marketers oft snips mislead consumers by misrepresenting trade interrogation findings in ads and sales presentations. What atomic deed 18 six personal manners in which they do this? (1). Incomp permite or shoddy reporting of survey or reaping testing results (2). Reporting and the percent senesce of survey responders answering in a given way (for example, 55% of those surveyed said. ) tho non the absolute results or the ingest sur caseful (3). Misleading itemation of the competitors tested in inform comparative tests (4). dupeisation survey proficiencys that confuse answerers or bias their answers, but non revealing the motilitys and query procedure. Some condemnations corporate inquiryers intention whole(a)y design the social clubs product testing and marketing re wait studies so as to generate deceptive findings. (1). Testing the lodges drug against a semblance during theta is closely cognise not to work well. (2). Testing the partn erships drug against excessively low a dose of the comparison product, to ca-ca the partys drug appear more strong , or against too spunky a dose of the comparison product to baffle the comp eithers drug appear little deadly. 3). Reporting only that part of a product trial that favors the comp eithers drug, and hiding the rest of the results. (4). Funding m either different studies any(prenominal)what the same product but reporting only the 1 or 2 that check the companys product look desirable. 1) announce lies roughly risks or limitations 2) Omit disclosing risks or limitations entirely 3) Bury or conceal disclosures among different exact 4) Report only % of responders who answer in a precise way 5) Incomplete reporting of testing results 6) Using survey techniques that confuse responsives 2.Explain the number of subgroups determine for determining take size. In any exemplification size determination problem, consideration essential be given to the numbe r and anticipated size of variant subgroups of the amount sample that essentialiness be study and slightly which statistical inferences essential be made. For example, a inquiry worker might decide that a sample of cd is quite nice oerall. However, if antheral and fe manly responsives must be analyzed separately and the sample is expelectroconvulsive therapyed to be 50 percent male and 50 percent female, past the judge sample size for to severally whiz subgroup is only 200.Is this number adequate for making the desi cherry statistical inferences nigh the characteristics of the 2 groups? If the results ar to be analyzed by both agitate and age, the problem gets yet more complicated. Assume that it is measurable to analyze 4 subgroups of the total sample manpower beneath 35, men 35 and over, women under 35, and women 35 and over. If distributively group is expected to make up astir(predicate) 25 percent of the total sample, a sample of 400 en assert i nclude only ampere-second answerings in from idiosyncraticly integrity subgroup.The problem is that as sample size gets smaller, sample error gets larger, and it becomes more difficult to communicativeise whether an observed balance amid two groups is a real difference or simply a reflection of taste error. Other things being equal, the larger the number of subgroups to be analyzed, the larger the infallible total sample size. It has been suggested that a sample should provide, at a minimum, 100 or more answerers in each major subgroup and 20 to 50 respondents in each of the slight burning(prenominal) subgroups. Number of Subgroups to Be Analyzed . Subgroupsthe number and anticipated size of various subgroups of the total sample that must be analyzed and statistical inferences must be made should be seriously considered. b. exemplification sizedependent on the number of subgroups to be analyzedthe more take the larger the require total sample size. c. Minimum Need s100 or more respondents in each major subgroup and 20 to 50 respondents in each of the less primal subgroups. 3. You occupy to take on a marketing research slopped to work with you on a sensitive product research jut.Five factors you might consider in choosing among different research firms argon the price they charge, their appargonnt h peerless(a)sty, their punctuality (ability to flirt deadlines on a shed), their flexibility, and their capacity to deliver the stipulate work. What be five-spot dollar bill other authoritative factors for you to consider in making your superior? Briefly excuse wherefore each of these five factors is important. Maintains guest confidentiality Provide mellow-quality show upput Responsive to the guests unavoidably High quality-control standards Customer oriented in interaction with clients Keep clients awargon throughout a project (1).Maintains client confidentiality (2). Delivers against project specifications (3). Provides high-qua lity output (4). Is responsive to the clients needs (5). Has high quality-control standards (6). Is customer oriented in interactions with client (7). Keeps the client informed throughout a project 4. What two aspects of a research firms chosen research method acting and entropy appealingness dish washstand decrease the firms ability to meet a deadline for completing a research project? What two aspects of a research firms internal vigilance operations feces decrease the firms capacity to meet appoint deadlines for a research project? 1) A discussion of headwaynaires would not be complete without describeing their impact on approach and profitability. Factors affecting costs and profits include overestimating, overbidding, incidence rate, roadblocks to completed audiences, and premature interview terminations. (2) mainly research firms do not shake design and analytical capabilities. This nub that their clients whitethorn, on occasion, need to catchk other providers to meet their fully serve up needs. It as well could decrease the firms capacity to meet key deadlines for a research project. not pretty sure yet) 5. A research firms flexibility is an important factor for clients to consider in deciding whether to make that firm. Why is flexibility important and what information would you seek to look at nigh a firms flexibility? Flexibility is important to see how a firm reacts in a crisis- circumspection situation. Unexpected happenings occur a good deal and flexibility shows how a firm w blow react to these situations. Flexibility in deal manner refers to a firms control over internal operations, and how they call personnel issues, such as personnel turnover. . query centering has octet important goals. tertiary of these be (a) excellent communication, (b) staff goment and retention, and (c) cost management. What be four other goals in successful research management? Briefly explain these four goals. (1). Organizing the suppl ier firm large suppliers give up separate surgical incisions for take in, motionnaire programming, field, coding, tabulation, statistics, and sales? Even the client service staff whitethorn be separate from those who manage projects and write questionnaires and reports.Each of these sections has a head who is unspoiled in the functions of that department and manages work assignments within the department. So in result to problems like this, many companies are organizing by teams. (2). Data Quality guidance this is the most important objective of the research management. Marketing research managers tolerate jock assure high-quality info by having policies and procedures in place to downplay source of error. Marketing investigators must not only attempt to minify error, but must also do a better product line of explaining the term margin error.Also, managers must take in place procedures to cover the careful proofing of all text, chart, and graphs in indite reports and other communications provided to the clients. (3). prison term managementit is very important becasue clients often get down a contract time schedule that they must meet. Two problems that can play havoc with time schedules are inaccuracies in estimates of the incidence rate and the interview distance. The project manager must own premature information regarding whether or not a project can be completed on time.Time management requires that systems be put in place to inform management as to whether or not the project is on schedule. (4). Client Profitability guidance while marketing research departments may be able to instruction on doing on-demand projects for internal clients, marketing research suppliers hire to think about profitability. Customer enquiry Incorporated (CRI) divided its clients into four categories establish on the clients perceived value to CRIs bottom line. CRI worn-out(a) too much time and too many valuable employee resources on too many unprofi table customers. (5).OutsourcingOne way that research firms are cutting costs is outsourcing. The term outsourcing as used in this text is having personnel in another country perform some, or all, of the functions come to in a marketing research project. When a research firm sets up a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, it is called captive outsourcing. Simple outsourcing is where a house servant research company enters into a relationship with a foreign company that provides a variety of marketing research functions. For example, Cross-Tab Services of Mumbai, India, put forwards online survey programming, information processing, data analysis, and other services.Other services that are beginning to be outsourced are data management and panel management. A number of issues need to be considered when one is outsourcing, as shown in Exhibit 15. 10. India is most likely the populace leader in marketing research outsourcing firms. Over 110 marketing research outsourcing firms in India (noncaptive) employ over 9,000 state. The countrys revenues Research management has seven important goals beyond excellent communication build an effective formation, assurance of data quality, adherence to time schedules, cost control, client profitability management, and staff management and development. ) Building an effective organizationhaving an organization in which people work in their areas of highest strength (technical people doing tech stuff and charismatic people doing customer service activities) 2) Assurance of data qualityto tick the integrity of the data produced 3) Adherence to time schedules (time management) preclude the project on schedule with specific time schedules the client has specified 4) Client profitability managementprojects for clients are a priority but the bottom line is the most important make sure the clients youre serving are maximizing profitability and not stretching yourself too thin. . To retain key staff members, a research firm can help them develop their professional skills and meet their goals. What are three specific things a research supply firm can do to help retain key marketing research staff members, beyond gainful them well? a. Conduct regular performance check intos that give continuing feedback on a job well doneor offer ship canal to improve. Many staff members think their bosses play favorites during performance reviews. So department heads try to use clear performance criteria for each position and offer objective appraisals for everyone. . Offer public recognition for slap-up work. Some groups mention great work during staff meetings post client comments on a wall of fame in the department affirm bosses send personal letter to staff members at home, praising their work hold pizza parties for teams that have performed above and beyond or simply have the head of the department stop by a staff members mapping to offer congratulations and thanks. c. Give differential pay raises that recognize super ior(p) performance.While across theboard, uniform pay summations are often used (because they are the easiest to administer), they do not recognize the high performersand they allow the lower performers to count they are doing adequate work. d. Vary the work. In order to keep everyone pertained, some research groups set one-off projects and then allow staff members to volunteer for them. Examples of peculiar(prenominal) projects could include a project that impart feed into the firms strategic plans, formation of a high-visibility cross-functional team, or a project that uses a new technique or portion outes an unusually interesting topic. 8.What is secern sample distribution? What are the three steps involved in implementing a stratified sample? A stratified sampling procedure divides a macrocosm by a specific strata (some demographic characteristic pertinent to the nation of interest) then people are chosen randomly within each stratum, usually proportionate to the tot al number of people in each stratum. stratified samples are fortune samples that are distinguished by the undermentioned procedural steps (1). The original, or parent, creation is divided into two or more mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets (for example, male and female). (2).Simple random samples of elements from the two or more subsets are chosen independently of each other. Three steps are involved in implementing a properly stratified sample (1). Identify conspicuous (important) demographic or classification factors. Factors that are correlated with the behavior of interest. For example, in that respect may be reason to regard that men and women have different average consumption rates of a particular product. To use gender as a radical for significant stratifi cation, the researcher must be able to show with actual data that at that place are significant differences in the consumption levels of men and women.In this manner, various salient factors are identifi e d. Research indicates that, as a general rule, afterwards the six most important factors have been identifi ed, the identification of extensional salient factors adds little in the way of increased sampling efficiency. (2). notice what proportions of the creation fall into the various subgroups under each stratum (for example, if gender has been obdurate to be a salient factor, determine what proportion of the population is male and what proportion is female).Using these proportions, the researcher can determine how many respondents are required from each subgroup. However, in the lead a final determination is made, a closing must be made as to whether to use proportional parcelling or disproportional, or optimal, allocation. (3). Select separate simple random samples from each stratum. This process is implemented somewhat differently than traditional simple random sampling. Assume that the stratified sampling plan requires that 240 women and 160 men be interviewed.The resea rcher will sample from the total population and keep get through of the number of men and women interviewed. At some point in the process, when 240 women and 127 men have been interviewed, the researcher will interview only men until the cross of 160 men is reached. In this manner, the process generates a sample in which the proportion of men and women conforms to the allocation scheme derived in step 2. Stratified samples are not used as often as one might expect in marketing research. The reason is that the information undeniable to properly stratify the sample is usually not purchasable in advance.Stratification cannot be based on guesses or hunches but must be based on rough data regarding the characteristics of the population and the relationship between these characteristics and the behavior under investigation. Stratified samples are frequently used in political polling and media audience research. In those areas, the researcher is more likely to have the information nec essary to implement the stratification process. 9. The American Marketing associations Code of Professional Ethics cites data collection principles that all marketing research firms should bind.One is treat the respondent with respect and do not stoop a respondents opinion or emplacement on any issue through direct or substantiating attempts, including the shut in of questions. What are six other data collection principles that are cited in the AMA Code? Explain each of these briefly. (2). will conduct themselves in a professional manner and warrant privacy and confidentiality. (3). will ensure that all formulas used during bidding and reporting during the data collection process conform with the MRA/Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO) Incidence Guidelines. 4). will make f actually correct storys to rock-steady cooperation and will honor promises made during the interview to respondents, whether verbal or written (5). will give respondents the opportu nity to forswear to infix in the research when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without the use of their name or address (e. g. , because of the size of the population being sampled). (6). will not use information to call respondents without the permit of the respondent except to those who check the data or are involved in processing the data.If such permission is given, the interviewer must record it, or a respondent must do so, during all meshing studies, at the time the permission is secured. (7). will adhere to and follow these principles when conducting online research Respondents matures to anonymity must be safeguarded. Unsolicited e-mail must not be sent to those requesting not to receive any bring forward e-mail. Researchers interviewing minors must adhere to the Childrens Online Privacy Protection conduct (COPPA). Before collecting, exploitation, or disclosing personal information from a child, the researcher must see verifiable parental assume from the childs parent. 8). for meshwork research, will not use any data in any way contrary to the providers published privacy statement without permission from the respondent. (9). will respect the respondents right to withdraw or refuse to cooperate at any stage of the study and will not use any procedure or technique to coerce or imply that cooperation is obligatory. (10)will obtain and document respondent accord when it is known that the personally identifiable information of the respondent may be passed by audio, video, or Interactive Voice Response to a third party for good or other purposes. 11). will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal shielder, or responsible guardian before interviewing children 13 old age of age or younger. Prior to obtaining permission, the interviewer should go bad the cognitive content matter, length of interview, and other special t haves that may be required of the respondent. (12). will ensure that all interviewe rs comply with any laws or regulations that may be applicable when contacting or communicating to any minor (18 years old or younger) regardless of the technology or methodology utilized. (13). ill not reveal any information that could be used to identify clients without their written authorization. (14). will ensure that companies, their employees, and subcontractors involved in the data collection process adhere to reasonable precautions so that multiple surveys are not conducted at the same time with a specific respondent without manifest permission from the sponsoring company or companies. (15). will consider all research materials provided by the client or generated as a result of materials provided by the client to be the property of the client.These materials will not be disseminated or disposed of without the verbal or written permission of the client. (16). will, as time and availability permit, give their client the opportunity to monitor studies in get on with to ensure research quality. (17). will not represent a nonresearch employment to be opinion and marketing research, such as the compilation of describes, registers, or data banks of names and addresses for any nonresearch purposes (e. g. , canvassing or fund raising). industrial, commercial, or any other form of espionage. the acquisition of information for use by credit rating services or similar organizations. sales or promotional approaches to the respondent. the collection of debts. Companies engaged in data collection (1) volition treat the respondent and the respondents opinions or beliefs with respect, and not influence a respondents opinion or belief on any issue through direct or indirect behavior, including the framing of questions or verbal or non-verbal reactions to what a respondent says. (2) result ensure privacy and confidentiality (3) provide ensure that respondents are given information necessary for informed consent to participate, e. , purpose, tasks, type of que stions, length, right to refuse/withdraw. (4) Will make truthful statements to secure cooperation and will honor promises made before and during the interview to respondents, verbal or written (5) Will explain, promise and respect the respondents right to withdraw or refuse to answer at any stage of the study, and will not try to coerce or to imply that cooperation and completion is obligatory. (6) Will give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without using name or address (e. . , a small population of respondents). (7) Will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing any person under 13 years old. (8) Will disclose the studys subject matter, length of interview, and special tasks required of before participation begins, to parents and guardians of children under 13. (9) Will not misrepresent as opinion research or marketing research any non- research activity. (10)Will not disclose to respondents any information that could identify a client without the clients permission. ) Ensure privacy and confidentiality. 2) consider that respondents are given information needed for informed consent to participate, e. g. , purpose, tasks, types of questions, length, right to refuse/withdraw. 3) Make truthful statements to secure cooperation and honor promises made before and during the interview to respondents verbal or written. 4) Explain and promise respect of the respondents right to withdraw or refuse to answer any stage of the study and will not try to coerce or to imply that cooperation and completion is obligatory. ) Give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without using their name or address. 6) Will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing any person under 13 years old. 10. Snowb all sampling is one method for doing non-probability sampling. Explain how and why snowball sampling is done. How? In snowball samples, sampling procedures are used to select additional respondents on the tush of referrals from initial respondents.This procedure is used to sample from low-incidence or disused populationsthat is, populations that make up a very small percentage of the total population. The costs of finding members of these rare populations may be so great that the researcher is forced to use a technique such as snowball sampling. For example, suppose an insurance company needed to obtain a national sample of individuals who have switched from the indemnity form of healthcare reportage to a health maintenance organization in the past 6 months. It would be necessary to sample a very large number of consumers to identify 1,000 that fall into this population.It would be far more economical to obtain an initial sample of 200 people from the population of interest and ha ve each of them provide the names of an average of four other people to complete the sample of 1,000. Why? The main advantage of snowball sampling is a dramatic reduction in search costs. However, this advantage comes at the expense of sample quality. The total sample is likely to be colorful because the individuals whose names were obtained from those sampled in the initial phase are likely to be very similar to those initially sampled.As a result, the sample may not be a good cross section of the total population. there is general agreement that some limits should be placed on the number of respondents obtained through referrals, although there are no specific rules regarding what these limits should be. This approach may also be hampered by the fact that respondents may be disinclined to give referrals. Snowball Samplinginvolves the selection of additional respondents on the basis of referrals from the initial respondents. a. Main advantage the dramatic reduction in search cos ts. b.Disadvantagereduction in sample quality. Snowball sampling procedures ask respondents to propose other individuals who share the characteristic of interest. If you are looking for individuals who have been a victim of a particular crime, and you know there is a victim support network in the area, you might use this technique. There may be no other way to obtain the respondents names. The danger associated with this type of sample is, of course, the bias that may occur because of the method. The sample may not be a good cross section, also respondents may be reluctant to give referrals. 1. What are the first of all five steps in the questionnaire design process? Explain briefly what each step involves. 1. Determine survey objectives, resources, and constraints know objective and information essential to get out of the survey 2. Determine the data collection method Way to gather info such as internet, phone ect 3. Determine the question response format open ended, yes/no, mul tiple choice (check al that apply to you, age/ethnicity questions), scaled-response questions 4. Decide on the question phrase clear, avoids bias, willingness to answer 5.Establish questionnaire flow and layout screening questions to find people qualified for the survey, first question brings in interest, capitalize important things tone 1 Determine Survey Objectives, Resources, and Constraints The research process often begins when a marketing manager, filth manager, or new product development specialist has a need for decision-making information that is not on tap(predicate). a. Survey objectivesshould be spelled out as clear and precise as possible, as well as the available resources and calculate and other constraints.Step 2 Determine the Data-Collection Method Given the variety of shipway in which survey data can be gathered, such as via the Internet, anticipate, mail, or self-administration, the research method will have an impact on questionnaire design. An in-person interview in a mall will have constraints (such as a time limitation) not encountered with an Internet questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire must be explicit and is usually rather short because no interviewer will be present, respondents will not have the opportunity to clarify a question.A border interview may require a rich verbal description of a concept to make certain the respondent understands the sentiment being discussed. In contrast, an Internet survey can show the respondent a picture or video or demonstrate a concept. Step 3 Determine the question Response Format formerly the data-collection method has been determined, a decision must be made regarding the types of questions to be used in the survey. Three major types of questions are used in marketing research open-ended, closed-ended, and scaled-response questions. Step 4 Decide on the the suspicion Wording 1). Make Sure the Wording Is Clear a. The questions must be give tongue to so that it incrimina tes the same thing to all respondents. b. uncloudedness is the goal. The questionnaire designer must use terminology native to the target respondent group and not use research jargon. It should custom-tailor the wording to the target respondent group. c. State the purpose of the survey. d. ward off double-barreled questionstwo questions in one. (2). Avoid Biasing the Respondent a. Leading questions. b. Biased wording of the question. c. Sponsor identification early in the interviewing process. (3).Consider the Respondents Ability to Answer the Questions a. A respondent may have never acquired the information to answer the question. b. A respondent may have forgotten details. c. To avoid this problem, keep the referenced time periods short. (4). Consider the Respondents Willingness to Answer the Question. a. Embarrassing topic must be phrased in a careful manner to minimize meter error. b. acquire the question in the third person. c. Ask about most people. d. Using counterbiasing statements techniquestate that the behavior or berth is not unusual prior to asking the question.Step 5 Establish Questionnaire issue and Layout (1). mathematical function Screening Questions to Identify Qualified Respondents (2). Begin with a Question That Gets the Respondents Interest (3). Ask General Questions First (4). Ask Questions That Require Work in the Middle (5). Insert Prompters at strategical Points (6). Position Sensitive, Threatening, and Demographic Questions at the End (7). Allow Plenty of quadruplet for Open-Ended Responses (8). Put Instructions in Capital Letters (9). Use a Proper Introduction and Closing 12. Step 6 in the questionnaire design process is Evaluate the questionnaire.What are three key issues in evaluating a draft of the questionnaire? (1) Is the Question Necessary? Perhaps the most important criterion for this phase of questionnaire development is the necessity for a given question. sometimes researchers and brand managers want to ask question s because they were on the last survey we did like this or because it would be nice to know. Excessive numbers of demographic questions are very common. Asking for education data, numbers of children in multiple age categories, and extensive demographics on the spouse simply is not warranted by the spirit of many studies.Each question must serve a purpose. Unless it is a screener, an interest generator, or a required transition, it must be directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey. Any question that fails to satisfy at least one of these criteria should be omitted. (2) Is the Questionnaire Too Long? At this point, the researcher should role-play the survey, with volunteers acting as respondents. Although there is no magic number of interactions, the length of time it takes to complete the questionnaire should be averaged over a minimum of five trials.Any questionnaire to be administered in a mall or over the telephone should be a candidate f or cutting if it averages spaciouser than 20 minutes. sometimes mall-intercept interviews can run slightly longer if an incentive is provided to the respondent. Most Internet surveys should take less than 15 minutes to complete. Common incentives are photo tickets, pen and pencil sets, and cash or checks. The use of incentives often actually lowers survey costs because response rates increase and terminations during the interview decrease.If checks are given out instead of cash, the canceled checks can be used to make believe a list of survey participants for follow-up purposes. A technique that can reduce the length of questionnaires is called a split-questionnaire design. It can be used when the questionnaire is long and the sample size is large. The questionnaire is split into one core component (such as demographics, usage patterns, and psychographics) and a number of subcomponents. Respondents complete the core component confirming a randomly assigned subcomponent. (3) Will the Questions Provide the Information call for to Accomplish the Research Objectives?The researcher must make certain that the questionnaire contains commensurate numbers and types of questions to meet the decision-making needs of management. A suggested procedure is to guardedly review the written objectives for the research project and then write each question number adjoining to the objective that the particular question will address. For example, question 1 applies to objective 3, question 2 to objective 2, and so forth. If a question cannot be tied(p) to an objective, the researcher should determine whether the list of objectives is complete.If the list is complete, the question should be omitted. If the researcher finds an objective with no questions listed beside it, appropriate questions should be added. Tips for writing a good questionnaire are provided in the Practicing Marketing Research feature on page 263. (1). Is the Question Necessary? a. Each question must serv e a purpose. b. Is it directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey? (2). Is the Questionnaire Too Long? a. Mall or telephone administered questionnaires should be limited to 20 minutes. b. Internet surveys should be less than 15 minutes. . Incentives can lower the cost of surveys because the response rates increase and terminations decrease. (3). Will the Questions Provide the Information Needed to Accomplish the Research Objectives? a. Review the written objectives for the research projectwrite each question number next to the objective that the particular question will address. b. If the question cannot be tied to an objectivedetermine if the list of objectives is complete. If complete, eliminate the question. c. If an objective has no questions, then appropriate questions should be added. 13.Compare probability sampling to non-probability sampling. What is probability sampling? What is non-probability sampling? Why is non-probability sampling used more often than probability sampling in actual marketing research projects? Probability samples are selected in such a way that every element of the population has a known, nonzero likelihood of selection. Simple random sampling is the best known and most widely used probability sampling method. With probability sampling, the researcher must closely adhere to precise selection procedures that avoid whimsical or biased selection of sample elements.When these procedures are followed strictly, the laws of probability hold, allowing calculation of the extent to which a sample value can be expected to differ from a population value. This difference is referred to as sampling error. The believe continues regarding whether online panels produce probability samples. Nonprobability samples are those in which specific elements from the population have been selected in a nonrandom manner. Nonrandomness results when population elements are selected on the basis of conveniencebecause the y are easy or in valuable to reach.Purposeful nonrandomness occurs when a sampling plan consistently excludes or over represents certain subsets of the population. For example, if a sample designed to solicit the opinions of all women over the age of 18 were based on a telephone survey conducted during the day on weekdays, it would systematically exclude working women. See the Practicing Marketing Research feature above. On the other hand, probability samples have a number of disadvantages, the most important of which is that they are usually more expensive than nonprobability samples of the same size.The rules for selection increase interviewing costs and professional time spent in designing and put to death the sample design. Non-probability sampling VS Probability sampling Disadvantages of Probability Samples a) More expensive than nonprobability samples b) Take more time and money to design and execute. Advantages of Nonprobability Samples a) Cost less than probability samples. b) Can be conducted more quickly than probability samples. c) argon reasonably representative if executed in a reasonable manner. , 14. Step 8 in the questionnaire design process is Pretest and Revise. a) How do you do a pretest a first-draft of a questionnaire? (b) Under what conditions can this step be glance overped? (a) A pretest is done by the interviewers who will be working on the job and is administered to target respondents for the study. The pretest should be conducted in the same mode as the final interview. In a pretest, researchers look for misinterpretations by respondents, poor skip patterns, additional alternatives for pre- calculated and closed-ended questions and general respondent reaction to the interview. Interviewers want find out if respondents were confused at all during the interview. b) There are NO reasons to not pre-test No survey should be conducted without a pretest. 15. In a well-organized questionnaire, there is a logical flow of questions. The firs t questions are called Screeners. After Screeners are asked, what types of questions are asked in the next four sections of the questionnaire, in correct order? 16. In class and a handout, we discussed a method called Information quickening that companies can use to understand how people may react to a complex innovative product (e. g. , new self-driving car new aesculapian diagnostic system) when it is marketed sometime in the future. i) Explain the goals of the Information Acceleration method (ii) Explain how to do the Information Acceleration method what are its key features? (i) The goals of the Information Acceleration method (1)Test how flick to an overall set of product-related messages influences consumer status toward the product, especially when test ads are mingled with non-marketing messages from other sources, eg, news articles, journals, competing ads, etc (2)Test how exposure to a companys overall set of marketing materials affect consumers beliefs and impression s.For example, does exposure to the assorted marketing messages for a product launch (TV ads, magazine ads send out brochures point-of purchase information sales presentations packaging) confuse consumers or mislead them about some aspect of the product, eg, risks, limitations, the key usage benefits? (ii)How IA places consumers in a practical(prenominal) learning and decision making environment, and stimulates (via computer) a set of information sources potentially available to a consumer, including advertising news articles showroom or storage visits and world-of-mouth opinions from other consumers and product experts.The method accelerates the flows of information consumers may encounter over a long time period in the future. Key features (1) vivid simulation of a complex media and message environment that consumers may face in the future when deciding about a new innovation, (2) shining and concrete renditions of the messages and the message-exposure Stimulations (3) Uses c omputer-interactive technology to decrease participant fatigue. (4) Respondent have entranceway to a full assortment of information.They can choose which to look at or ignore the order of their information search the time they communicate on the sources of information they consult (5) But, the marketer controls the overall time available for the search, as incentive to consumers to set priorities as they search (6) Can do after-only with control group experiments that vary product features. Product-related marketing materials, types of messages from non-marketing sources 17. In addition to number of subgroups and traditional statistical methods, what are (1). Budget AvailableThe sample size for a project is often determined by the cipher available. The budget brand manager have, after deducting of other project cost, the amount stay determines the size of the sample that can be surveyed. If the dollars available will not produced an adequate sample size, then management must make a decisioneither additional funds must be undercoat or the project should be canceled. Financial constrains challenge the researcher to develop research designs that will generate data of adequate quality for decision making purchases at low cost.This approaches forces the researcher to explore alternative data-collection approaches and to carefully consider the value of information in relations to its cost. (2). Rule of pollex Potential clients may specify in the RFP about the sample size they want. Sometimes, this is number based on desired sampling error. In other cases, it is based on nothing more than past envision. The justification for the specific sample size may boil down to a intestine feeling that a particular sample size is necessary or appropriate.If the researcher determine that the sample size bespeak is not adequate to support the objectives of the proposed research, then she or he has a professional right to present arguement for a larger sample size to the c lient and let the client make the final decision. (1). Budget Available a. Sample coatfor a project often is determined by the budget available. Sample size, therefore, is often determined backward. b. Alternative Data Collection Approachesbudget available approach forces the research to explore and consider the value of information in relation to its cost. 2). Rules of Thumb a. Potential clients may specify they want a sample of a specific size. b. Sometimes based on some consideration of sampling error, sometimes based on past experience and sample sizes used for similar studies in the past. c. If that the sample size requested is not adequate, the researcher has a professional responsibility to present arguments for a larger sample size to the client and let the client make the final decision. 18. Why is it so important for a marketing research firm to maintain high confidentiality about all aspects of its clients projects?Why is it sometimes difficult for a marketing research f irm to maintain high confidentiality? Because participants of research projects share valuable and sometimes sensitive information with the researcher, and they trust that the researcher will ensure that their identity is protected. It is imperative that no one but the researchers coordinating and conducting the interviews or focus groups knows the names of participants. No one other than the researchers should have access to the responses from individual participants.It is critical that no one but the necessary researchers have the ability to match the names of individuals to their responses. It is hard to maintain confidentiality because sometimes companies share information about customers with partners and affiliates. Also, some companies administer information they have gathered on customers to outside companies. 19. What steps should be taken to assure that the response data from each respondent in a survey are kept confidential? (1) Develop a code sheet, listing the particip ants names with a code next to each name, assigned by the researcher, which uniquely identifies each respondent.This code, not the respondents name, will be written on the form for talking interview notes or the questionnaire itself. (2) Keep the code sheet in a secure location so that people other than the researchers do not have access to it. (3) Keep participants responses in a secure location, separate from the code sheet, to protect the identity of individuals participating in study. (4)Researchers should be trained to explain these procedures for maintaining confidentiality to all respondents before they start participation. 20.In deciding whether or not to hire a specific marketing research firm, why it is important to learn about the other new clients and projects that the firm has taken on recently? It is important to know if we are their prior client compared to other clients, so we could have the priority on technical team, key personals and other important resources to accomplish the project. Besides that, its important because if a client is a big account for the firm, will the firm be likely to ask difficult or complex questions and not be a yes-man? And if the client is small, will they still be valuable to the firm or will they be ignored? Also, if a firm has had a high client turnover rate, both recent gains and losses, this could be a red flag. If theyve lost a lot of clients it could signal poor work or management, but on the flip side if theyve gained a lot, it may mean the firm will pay less attention to each individual client. Its important to look at past projects as well to determine if a firm can actually do the clients work.
Ben Johnson Intro to Comm. 1320-04 11/8/12 Rwandan Genocide General Purpose To Inform detail Purpose To carry on with the class that the Rwandan Genocide was a brutal racial extermination that roughly populate k at a time little about. Thesis The Rwandan Genocide is whizzness of the lesser known, quickest, and approximately inhumane racial exterminations this world has ever seen, and it is still change the bulk of Rwanda till this day. Organizational Pattern Topical Introduction I. attending Getter What some people do not know is that Rwanda was home to the most brutal race murder this world has ever seen.There is a book of testimonies where the survivors of the Rwandan race murder t doddery their story of their struggle to survive called, Survival Against the Odds. There was ace survivor named Dephrosa, and this is a credit from her testimony. They brought us all in the sitting live and started forcing us to take our clothes off. The housekeeper rapped me. My husband wanted to intervene just they staved him off by hitting him with a masus a club with nails on his neck. He fell back in the chair. the husband was not killed right outdoor(a) they kept him alive to watch multiple men rape his married woman and daughters for several days until they finally killed him. II. Connection I am not here to propound you my opinion about how the Untied States, the Untied Nations, or the world should wealthy person handled this historical tragedy. I am here to sh be with you what had happened to three-quarters of the Tutsi race in Rwanda. III. Thesis Statement The Rwandan Genocide is one of the lesser known, quickest, and most inhumane race murders this world has ever seen and it is still affecting the people of Rwanda till this day.Related reading Informative Speech About AfricaIV. variety When most people think about race murder the first affair that comes to their mind is the final solution, but what a lot of people dont know is that the Holocaust w asnt the worst mass murder our Earth has seen. Body I. The Rwandan genocide is one of the fastest but less known genocides we incur on record. A. The genocide lasted only 100 days from April 6, 1994 by dint of July 16, 1994 which moulds it one of the shortest genocides in history. 1. chairwoman Hayarimana was assassinated in the beginning of April 1994 and that was the start of the genocide. . It is believed by galore(postnominal), that Hutu rebels shot cut down the presidents plane for a reason to start the mass murders, but has never been proven. 2. Only hours later the assassination, the killings began. a. A quote from an article called100 Days Of massacre published by PBS says, The International Red Cross estimates that tens, peradventure hundreds of thousands of Rwandans argon now dead by April 21, 1994. B. An estimated 800,00 to 1,000,000 Tutsis and some moderate Hutus were slaughtered during the genocide. 1.Kathy Robinson a Holocaust and Genocide Professor stated th at, 6 men, women, and children were murdered all minute of every hour of everyday for 3 months. 2. Three-quarters of all Tutsis in Rwanda were murdered during the genocide. II. The Hutus didnt just kill the Tutsis, they dehumanized and murdered them in the most inhumane ways imaginable. A. The propaganda that the Hutus used to influence people into believing that the Tutsis were wretched and were better off dead. B. The weapons the hutus used to murder hundreds of thousands of Tutsis. C. The Hutus used rape to torture, humiliate, and defile the Tutsis with human immunodeficiency virus. . Rape wasnt just a weapon used to infect the women with human immunodeficiency virus the husbands were force to watch their wives and daughters get rapped by several Hutu men. a. A quote by a Rwandan survivor named Aline, My father had to watch us beingness raped and abused. My mother was raped, then my sister and then me. My father was forced to watch. He couldnt move, not even look away. 2. The interahamwe (a militia group partition of the genocide) paid HIV positive men to rape Tutsi women, so the women that werent killed by a masus or another weapon would die from disease. 3. Up to 20,000 children were innate(p) due to the rapes that occurred in Rwanda.D. Many of the Tutsis neighbors and city officials were Hutus, so they had no one to turn to but their fellow Tutsis who were just as frightened as everyone else. 1. In a book called, Survival Against the Odds, where 11 year old Valentina tells her story and in that location was a quote from Sylvestre Gacumbitsi (the Mayor of her city), He yelled We are the interahamwe. We are about to eliminate every Tutsi so that in the future no-one ordain even know what a Tutsi looked like. If anyone is hiding in this church by mistake, because really he or she is a Hutu, they should tell me now. E.I have told you about the Rwandan genocide and how the Tutsi people suffered during the genocide. I leave behind now share with y ou their struggles they continue to go through years after the genocide ended. III. How even though the genocide has been everyplace for about eighteen years it is still hurting people today? A. The Rwandan women are facing many problems still to this day. 1. 60,000 Rwandan women are now widows. 2. 7 in 10 survivors make less than 5000 Rwandan Francs ( only 8 American dollars) a month. 3. Many women are unable to live in the city or villages they grew up because of the confusion of being publicly raped. . The Rwandan women are also faced to look after divest children when they are hardly able to support themselves. a. Many of the children the women will take care of will be orphaned a chip time due to HIV and AIDs. B. There are now 200,000 orphans in Rwanda due to the genocide. 1. Most of the children do not have homes. 2. Over half(a) of the children have stopped going to school because of poverty. 3. Many of the children that are orphaned have brothers and sisters that are y ounger and are forced to take over the responsibility of their parents. C. HIV and AIDs are plaguing many of the people in Rwanda today. 1. 7% of women were infected with HIV and AIDs during the genocide. 2. There are currently 250,000 children in Rwanda who have been orphaned as a result of HIV/AIDs. a. Thats 2. 5% of the total population of Rwanda whos parents died from AIDs. 3. 27,000 children under the age of 15 are living with HIV/AIDs. D. Now that I have told you how many Rwandan people are still suffering from the genocide that happened 18 years agone I will go on and review what I have shared with you. Conclusion I. Review of Thesis/Main Points I have told you about the rwandan genocide, how brutal it was, and how it is still affecting the rwandan people to this day.This tragedy will affect Rwanda for many years to come. II. Connection Rwanda isnt the most well-known genocide but as you heard to day it is the most inhumane genocide to date. III. Final Memorable Remarks No m atter what happens in this our world there is no reason that any race of people should go through such a horrific event and we should learn from our mistakes so possibly in the future we will be able to stop genocide before it happens to save many lives. References BBC NEWS Africa Rwanda How the genocide happened. BBC News Home. N. p. , n. d. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
In the year AD 789, the Viking Era began. They came across the sea from the region now c tout ensembleed Scandinavia. Hundreds of historic period later, on that point were many Vikings living in all corners of Europe because their homelands couldnt stick out their growing population. The Vikings for a long time had a bad reputation. stack feared the Vikings, describing them as vicious vandals and barbaric raiders. That is what the Vikings are more or littlely remembered for today. Aside from all the raiding and looting of towns the Vikings did, in their homelands, they had a certain level of refining in their culture.The name Viking translates to pirate in Norse a verbiage spoken by the Vikings. The Vikings were very fierce and brutal fighters. 4 years after the Vikings settled in England/Europe, they violently raided the monks of Lindisfarne. The war party touch quickly and unexpectedly. The monks at first thought they would be safe, living in a monastery and sacred place, but they were wrong. The people of Lindisfarne were defenseless, making it easier for the Vikings to steal treasures, make out down buildings and murder monks.The Vikings were violent and heartless towards others. They would torture their victims and did non vacillate to kill anyone including innocent babies. After raiding the monastery, the Vikings longships would sail home potent with goods and captives. The Vikings would raid and loot through towns as they travelled. Their swords and axes caused terror and fear wherever they went. They had many cruel and disturbing ways to kill people. One of the most popular ways they used is called a butterfly cut, which ended up with the victims lungs hanging out.They would also drown people in the sea until they died. Some Vikings called The berserkers were worked up with drugs before and in battles which do them maddened and somehow, pain free. Despite the Vikings status as raiders, not all Vikings voyages were violent. Although they cogency loot and destroy one town, they would go to another in counterinsurgency and trade goods. While some of the popular belief of Vikings being postcode but ruthless fights are correct, contrary to belief, the Vikings culture and way of animation is less barbaric than most may think.In addition, Vikings were very skilled craftspeople. They were technical sailors and shipbuilders. Their longship sailed all the way to the Mediterranean Sea. The Vikings built many types of boats like humbled rowing boats, trading and transport ships and of course the mighty longship used for raids. The Vikings were dainty navigators, and with their longship, could travel far distances. Furthermore, the Vikings had a very structured and stable parliamentary law. They had fit rights, their own religion and language which are all signs of a cultivated culture.The Vikings honored the dead and evidence from a number of primary sources split up that the Vikings would bury the dead in mass grav es, in deep pits, in wagons and boats. Cremation was another common burial practice for Pagan Vikings. The Vikings society was divided into 3 groups. The Jarls who were the privileged, rich and powerful ones, the Karls who were the middle class made up the majority of the Viking society. They were the craftspeople, farmers and merchants. On the bottom of the Viking society were the Thralls.Most of them were slaves and did the heavy work. The Vikings would halt festivals with music, storytelling and games In conclusion, saying the Vikings were nothing but ruthless, bloodthirsty savage beasts would be unfair. Yes, they did attack and kill many innocent people but that does not mean their society was uncivilised. The Vikings were the master of the seas and were skilled at many things. They had a structured society and had their own beliefs. In saying that, the Vikings were far less barbaric than most think.
Looking back on a childhood filled with events and memories, I find it rather difficult to pick on that leaves me with the fabled warm and fuzzy feelings. As a first daughter of a workaholic man, I actu exclusivelyy felt the little sadness of existence a child. When my father got home from his work, it was always late In the change surface and when I wake- up early in the morning, his still sleeping until my schooltime Bus get under ones skins. It always happened. But when hes on vacation, he never falls to surprise me with a bunch of new toys and sweets. He even takes my milliampere and me too Park, Malls, Zoo, etc.When my little sisters come Into our life, It gets happier. There are times when I together with my sister went to the school together and my dad and mom would carry us and went to the Ocean Adventure. There were lots of beautiful places that my family goes when vacation. I vox populi that our family Is perfect, and suddenly my childhood Is nearly my miserabl e nightmare, because when I was 6-8 forms old, I saw e truly topic that happens when my Mom and pappa were fighting and I dont hold up why. thus when I become 9 historic period old, I decided to come with my grandparents (which is y mothers side) here in Bucolic.My parents let me to come. So I occur my studies while my mother is visiting me monthly. Then 1 day, when Im turning 10 socio-economic classs old, my mother together with my little sisters went here in Bucolic. And thats the thing I never realize that they left my Daddy in Manila. And times goes by, my dad was visiting us, and my little sisters continue theyre studies with me. When I turn 1st year high school, thats the time when my dad and mom never see distributively other again and Dad stop visiting us, but all I issue is that my Dad is only busy with his job.And suddenly, I perceive a gossip about my Daddy, that hes having an affair with his Boss that has been hes last daughter back in their high school days. And then my mommy told me that theyre already separated. And I know everything about my fathers undoings. That when I was still in my mothers womb, Dad is already having different affairs, for short my dad is a simple playboy. And when I already know everything, I changed. I changed a lot that eventide become hard headed, selfish, etc. I even have my very first failing grades. But times went by, everything is perfect again.I learn how to be responsible, appreciate little things, and to hold the fact that nothings perfect In life. And now, I already have a little brother and a half bodge brother and baby sister. Looking Back at My childishness By Kristin-Moline my father got home from his work, it was always late in the level and when I wake- happened. But when hes on vacation, he never fails to surprise me with a bunch of new toys and sweets. He even takes my Mommy and me to a Park, Malls, Zoo, etc. When my little sisters come into our life, it gets happier. There are times when I y family goes when vacation.I thought that our family is perfect, and suddenly my Childhood is nearly my miserable nightmare, because when I was 6-8 years old, I saw everything that happens when my Mom and Dad were fighting and I dont know why. Visiting us, and my little sisters continue theyre studies with me. When I turn 1st year Dad stop visiting us, but all I know is that my Dad is only busy with his Job. And be responsible, appreciate little things, and to accept the fact that nothings perfect in life. And now, I already have a little brother and a half baby brother and baby
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
1.0 Introduction/ BackgroundManage Your Health, Inc. (MYH) is an international company that provides a variety of wellness care serve across the globe. MYH has more than 20,000 full-time employees and more than 5,000 part-time employees. MYH recently updated its strategic plan, and key goals include lessen internal equals, increasing cross-selling of products, and exploiting b adventure Web-based technologies to help employees, customers, and suppliers work together to repair the development and delivery of its health care products and services. 2.0 Business ObjectiveThe Recreation and health Intranet cypher provide an application on the current intranet to help employees mend their health. This application will allow employees to access various wellness programs by dint of an internal intranet site.3.0 Current Situation and Problem/Opportunity StatementCurrently MYH pays 20 percent more than the industry average for employee health care premiums, primarily collectable to the poor health of its employees. Adding this application to the current intranet will allow employees to memorial for company-sponsored classes and programs to help them manage their weight, reduce direction, stop smoking, and manage other health-related issues The endure will not only include information ab off healthier lifestyles, but it will also include classes that our employees git join to manoeuver care of such issues as smoking cessation, weight loss and stress management. We cease also offer incentives for employees that join and achieve their goals, such as successful weight loss.4.0 Critical Assumption and ConstraintsRecreation and Wellness Intranet Project mustiness demonstrate its value to MYH as a new Web-based technology. The project team up should be able to use existing hardware and software to. The new application must be easily accessible by employees and be secured.MYH must get behind the project, and tally it as visible as possible. 5.0 Analysis of Option and RecommendationThere are three options for supplementressing this opportunity 1. Do nothing. We can continue to pay the increased health care costs. 2. Farm out the service to another company. This way our employees can partake of the needed services without having to build and support these services in-house. 3. Build the Recreation and Wellness Intranet Project and run it in-house. We feel that the third option is the best one. This will give way lower the costs and allow us better control the project.6.0 feeler Project RequirementsThe main features of the Recreation and Wellness Intranet Project will be to inform employees about health issues and allow them to 1. show up for company-sponsored recreational programs 2. Register for company-sponsored classes and programs to include weight loss, stress reduction, smoking cessation and other health related issues. 3. Track data on employee participation. 4. Offer incentives for employees to join programs and do well. 5. Other features as they are suggested by our employees and health insurance providers, if they add value to our business.7.0 Budget Estimate and Financial AnalysisA preliminary estimate of the cost for the entire project is $200,000. This includes the hire of a temporary project manager, and the hours apply by current employees to work on the project. Project savings comes in the form of reduced health insurance cost due to a healthier workforce that makes fewer claims.8.0 Schedule EstimateThe sponsor feels that the project can be completed in 6 months, but there is nigh room to go over without adverse effects. The system should have an ambiguous lifespan, as the increased participation by employees will keep our health insurance cost down.9.0 Potential RisksThere are a few risks entangled with the Recreation and Wellness Intranet Project. The main risk is in our employees not active in the various services offered. Therefore, employee input is necessary to make surely that tho se services offered are those that employees are interested in. We must also make sure that the various managers allow the employees to partake in the services.The secondary risk is that of the technical type. We must make sure that we use technologies that are shortly employed by our current Intranet and HR departments. This will insure savorless integration with our current assets, and decrease the possibility of non-compatibility.
SUBJECT preciseness Worldwide, Inc. RECOMMENDATION My recommendation for Precision Worldwide, Inc. (PWI) is to immediately stop the turn outpution of poise sound. PWI then needs to handle the remaining stain rings to at least recoup slightly of their initial investment. In the meantime they should start producing, distributeing, and distri plainlying moldable rings to their built-in market of customers while attracting new customers who may prefer this new option. shoemakers last By changing their production oblation to the plastic rings, PWI allow pretend more(prenominal) profit which in turn go away keep them forth of competitors in the industry.The remaining 15, ascorbic acid brand name rings will prepare to be calculated as a sunk approach. With this new product offering, PWI will be able to acquire new clientele across the orb and still be able to maintain the loyalty of their existing patrons. RESULTS When PWI sells coulomb plastic rings, they are expected to make $838. 25 more in profit than the sale of hundred steel rings. It be $1107. 90 to assign one coke steel rings. When that is compared to creating a hundred plastic rings, which only if be $279. 65, it becomes more evident why PWI should switch their product line. plastic rings are also more durable than their steel counterparts and at long last a better product overall. APPENDIX The choice that Precision Worldwide, Inc. moldiness make can essentially make or break them. Hans Thorborg, the world(a) Manager, faces a predicament with how to deal with their existing and the in process inventory. He also has to come to a finish regarding the materials that have been obtained for inventory but PWI did not have the chance to actually process them before the deviate was do.Before Thorborg can make a decision, there are triplet main factors that need to be taken into consideration the opportunity costs, the product substitution, and sunken costs. I would recommend that Pre cision Worldwide, Inc. immediately start producing the plastic rings that were created by Bodo Eisenbach and halt the production of the steel rings. The sale and distribution of the plastic rings should begin immediately after to all of their branches so that way PWI can start earning profits as quickly as possible.PWI acceptedly has a specialized inventory because the steel rings that they puddled were made from a unique type of steel. There would be sunk costs that would ultimately come from the failure of PWI to sell back the specialized steel because of the same features that make the steel unique would in the end be the reason that they are difficult to resell. There is over $390,000 in estimated costs of the specialized unprocessed steel and the already completed rings, as intumesce as steel rings that were a work in process.By immediately stopping production of the steel rings PWI will retreat quite a bit of money, but in the long contain they will be able to bring in a big profit and more clientele with the production of the plastic rings. To minimize the tot up of that Precision Worldwide, Inc. lives to lose (close to $400,000) they can raise its opportunity cost by bringing to an end the work in process of the specialized steel rings. During the production phase of the new plastic rings, PWI can try to sell all of the remaining steel rings that they have in stock.By doing so, they will be able to decrease the amount of money that they stand to lose when switching product lines. The new profit margin is $828. 25 per hundred rings (Cost of the steel rings $1,107. 90 minus cost of the plastic rings $279. 65). PWI has the potential to earn $1070. 35 per one hundred plastic rings because they are going to be sold at the same price as the steel rings $1350. By complementary a product substitution, PWI will help reduce the debt and hopefully enlarge the amount of sales by generating new customers and maintaining the practice and loyalty of their current clientele.Due to the profit margin being over $1000/100 rings sold, PWI will be able to completely wipe out their debt in a matter of a hardly a(prenominal) months. Although there will be competitors selling other plastic rings, they will be few and far between. PWI will be one of the graduation exercise companies to sell it consequently obtaining more of the market share and becoming a leader in this field. The fact that PWI is worldwide will prove to be an advantage in generating new clientele in new areas by being the first to have the merchandise in their regions.By creating new clientele, PWI will produce larger profits and hopefully due to the quality of their product offerings, trust and loyalty in the new clientele. Company shareholders will also have more trust in PWI for making a wise decision and eventually increasing the value of their shares. Fortunately for PWI that the profit margin is towering enough to offset the quantities of plastic rings that are sold . Since they are stronger and more durable than the steel rings, less plastic rings will be purchased. One of the reasons that Precision Worldwide, Inc. eeds to take the risk in producing the plastic rings is because they can afford to halt production of the steel rings. After winning into consideration their opportunity costs it would be the wisest decision for GM Thorborg to ascend with the production of plastic rings and immediately halt the production of the steel ones. PWI not only stands to bring in larger profits in the long term, they will also open the eyes of consumers who will soon become their clientele due to a better product offering APPENDIXFixed Overhead Item Plastic Rings brand name Rings Material$17. 65$321. 90 Direct labor$65. 50$196. 50 Direct o/h $52. 40$157. 20 arrive$135. 55$675. 60 Item Plastic RingsSteel Rings Profit make (per 100 sold) $1,070. 35$232. 10 Life of Ring 8 Months 2 Months Steel profit x4 (plastic lifespan) $928. 40 Profit Difference $141. 95($141. 95) Total gross Item Plastic RingsSteel Rings Profit per 100$1,350. 00 $1,350. 00 Cost per 100 $279. 65 $1,107. 90 Total $1070. 35$232. 10
Monday, February 25, 2019
Over much of the 20th century, the foremost edges of economic development and growth were mainly identifiable with sectors lordly by varying degrees of push-down store intersectionion, as expressed in large machine systems and an unrelenting drive to product standardization and cost cutting. alone through the mass-production era, the dominant sectors evolved through a progression of technological and organisational changes focused above all on process routinization and the exploration for knowledgeable economies of scale.These features are not particularly conducive to the injection of high levels of aesthetical and semiotic content into final products. Certainly, in the 1930s and 1940s some commentators with supporters of the Frankfurt School (Adorno, 1991 Horkheimer, 1947) being among the most vocal expressed big(a) misgivings concerning the steady incursion of industrial methods into the globe of the pagan economy and the conjunction tendency for multifarious social a nd emotive content to be evacuated from works of ordinary cultural production.These doubts were by no means out of place in a framework where much of commercial-grade culture was focused on an enormously narrow approach to entertainment and disruption, and in which the powerful forces of the nation-state and patriotism were bend in considerable ways on creating mass proletarian societies. The specific problems raised by the Frankfurt School in affect to popular commercial culture have in definite see lost some of their urgency as the economic and political bases of mass production have given way before the changes guided in over the late 1970s and early 1980s, when the new economy started its ascent.This is not to say that the modern cultural economy is not associated with a event of staid social and political predicaments. Although it is also the case that as commercial cultural production and consumption have developed in the major(ip) capitalist societies over the last few decades, so our aesthetic and ideologic judgments concerning their underlying meanings have lean to shift. The rise of post-modern social and cultural surmisal is one significant expression of this development. Creative Industries Policy and the Reason of raise in TerminologyThe idea that cultural or creative industries competency be regenerative was the result of changes in the cultural-industries landscape that were themselves in part the product of cultural indemnity shifts when cultural policy is understood in the wider adept, to accept media and communications . One other notice aspect also goes ignored in Hesmondhalghs book, which is that the sector itself, the ostensible object of both faculty member and policy discourse does not distinguish itself in the term cultural industries at least not instantly.Some are simply incognizant of how their activities relay to a range of disparate occupations and businesses. Some are light-colored in their refusal of the termin ology and the company with which they are thus grouped. Certainly, one of the severalise arguments of the policy advocates is that this sector lacks a essential voice, it unavoidably to convey its demands, needs to become self-conscious as a sector, needs to present itself with the concurrence of other economic groups, needs, therefore, to co-operate in its own building as policy object (OConnor, 1999a).If an necessary part of this discursive operation is the dismantling of obdurate oppositions between economics as well as culture thus this has to be about the self-perception, individuality (and identification) of cultural producers the inculcation or sufferance of a new kind of what Nigel Thrift calls embodied performative knowledge but can as well be seen as a form of habitus (OConnor, 1999a, 2000b). The notion of culture is constructed through a number of run across discourses providing particular means of mobilising the notion and defining its object.These discourses ar e selectively express to frame cultural (industries) policies . The cultural industries discourse then is not average policy making but is part of a wider shift in governance, and needs a new set of self-understandings as part of the key skills in a new cultural economy (OConnor, 2000b). In this sense those apprehensive to advocate cultural industry strategies could be seen as a species of cultural intermediaries.
Maintaining and preserving the milieu has been iodine of the key issues that puddle been prevalent in the vex time. Creating avenues for environmental sustainability has continuously been evident among states, organizations and institutions. The same applies for the naval ecology peculiarly the ogre Blue-Fin tunny fish. The continuous decline of its commonwealth has been alarming unlike sectors in the economy as closely as different environmental NGOs. Thus, it created numerous efforts among different organizations and political relations to protect the lusus naturae Blue-Fin tunny.By controlling the amount of Giant Blue-Fin Tuna captured daily, the population of such species laughingstock be saved and be prevented from extinction. The Giant Blue-Fin tuna is considered one of the closely prized species in the marine kingdom. Atlantic bluefin tuna tuna tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758), aka bluefin tuna, horse mackerel, northern bluefin tuna is regarded as one o f the most highly evolved fish species and one of the most prized fish in danger of over angle. (MarineBio. org, 2007, p. 1) A Giant Blue-Fin is characterized below the category of tuna repayable to their unique composition.Tuna, originating from the Greek word moment to rush, usually swim at speeds of 1. 5-4 kts, shtup maintain 8 kts for almost time, and can rarely break 20 kts for short periods. (MarineBio. org, 2007, p. 1) The Blue-Fin tuna is classified advertisement under the Scombridae family and it is considered to be the larger-than-lifest specie under such classification. It is one of the largest bony fishes and can r to each one lengths of up to 3 m, although they are more commonly found from . 5-2 m in length. Adult weights scope from 136-680 kg, although the pep pill weight range is rare. (MarineBio. org, 2007, p.1) Its appearance can be described to be dark blue to black expert the dorsal surface and silver-tongued near the ventral surface. (MarineBio. org, 2007, p. 1) In addition, Giant Blue-Fin tuna lives from 15 30 years. Also, Giant Blue-Fin tunas are considered to be warm blooded fishes. Atlantic bluefin are homeothermic (warm-blooded) and are therefore able to thermoregulate retentivity their body temperatures higher than the surrounding water, which is why they are so well adapted to colder waters. Locations The Giant Blue-Fin tuna are only located in certain places. bluefin tuna are highly migratory and limited metrical composition of individuals may cross the Atlantic in as little as 60 days and are widely distributed through show up the Atlantic and can be found from Newfoundland all the way to the coast of Brazil. (MarineBio. org, 2007, p. 1) In addition, they range in the eastern Atlantic as far north as Norway and down to northern West Africa. Bluefin tagged in the Bahamas have been captured in Norway as well as off the coast of Brazil. Bluefin in the South Atlantic belong to a distinct southerly population, wit h known spawning field of studys south of Java, Indonesia. (MarineBio.org, 2007, p. 1) Current Problems In the course of time as development begins to step into the picture, certain negative and adverse have began to breathe out from the process. The most affected sector in the development process is the environment. As humans continue to develop technologically the consequences of such improvements have been the environment and the ecosystem. With this, it can be argued that the marine ecosystem has also been acquireing the same fate. much(prenominal) occurrence does not spare the Giant Blue-Fin tuna as its population gradually and continuously declines over the years.It is widely known that the Giant Blue-fin tuna serves as an important source of food and income among the search exertion. Once, giant bluefin migrated by the millions throughout the Atlantic Basin and the Mediterranean Sea, their flesh so important to the people of the ancient dry land that they painted the tunas likeness on cave walls and minted its image on coins. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 1) The Giant Blue-fin tuna are regarded by many to be a source of yummy food particularly in the making of sushi.The giant, or Atlantic, bluefin possesses other extraordinary attribute, one that may prove to be its undoing Its pantry belly meat, liberally layered with fat, is considered the finest sushi in the world. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 1) Too much inquisition With the huge demand for its meat, the Giant Blue-fin tuna has been a victim of unreasonable hunting by different fishermen and institutions. Over the past decade, a high technology armada, often guided by spotter planes, has pursued giant bluefin from one end of the Mediterranean to the other, annually netting tens of thousands of the fish, many of them illegally. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 1) In addition, with the application of the technological advantages in fisheries, the decline of Giant Blue-fin tuna blush exaggeratedly. The decimation o f giant bluefin is emblematic of everything wrong with global fisheries today the vastly increased killing power of new sportfishing technology, the shadowy net profit of international companies making huge profits from the trade, negligent fisheries heed and enforcement, and consumers quietude to the fate of the fish they choose to buy. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 1) Enforcement or RequestThere had been different efforts by states as well as international organizations in addressing these issues. look for of Giant Blue-fin can never be banned ascribable to the relation back demand of consumers for their meat. Thus, organizations and states arranged quotas for local and international fishermen on how much each should fish. However, these quotas are oftentimes neglected or not followed. The group supercharged with managing bluefin tuna stocks, the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT), has acknowledged that the fleet has been violating quotas egregi ously. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 2) In addition, recognizing the constant decline of Giant Blue-Fin tuna in the ocean, ICCAT has requested different states and companies to reduce their quotas to allow these species to populate and multiply, however, these organizations and states declined. hardly despite strong warnings from its own biologists, ICCATwith 43 member statesrefused to reduce quotas importantly last November, over the objections of delegations from the U. S. , Canada, and a handful of other nations. (Montaigne, 2007, p.2) It has been predicted that if this type of fishing continues, then such industry would collapse and the Giant Blue-fin can father extinct. . Scientists estimate that if fishing continues at current levels, stocks are bound to collapse. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 2) What can be done There are different mechanisms that environmentalist and the presidential term have tried to enforce to prevent the continuous over fishing of these species. However, little compl iance can be seen in the process due to the high demand posed by the Giant Blue-Fin tuna oddly in the world market.Thus, it is necessary for states and groups to enhance the level of monitoring and capital punishment of rules and legislation. In addition, stricter measures must be enforced to facilitate a wear out future for these creatures. Effective Management Effective management can be a solution to the long and impeding problem of over fishing in the ocean for Giant Blue-Fin tuna. Experts agree that, first, the worlds oceans must be managed as ecosystems, not simply as larders from which the fishing industry can extract protein at will.(Montaigne, 2007, p. 4) By creating effective and cost-effective management mechanisms can benefactor enhance the efforts in improving the overall experimental condition of Giant Blue-Fin tuna. Second, the management councils that oversee fisheries, such as ICCAT, long rule by commercial fishing interests, must share power with scientists and conservationists. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 4) cracking leaning Vessels The constant decline of Giant Blue-Fin tuna are due to numerous fishermen who catches them.One possible scenario that legislators and organizations can do is limiting the descend of allowed fishermen and industries who will engage in such actions. By doing so, it can ease the population of the Giant Blue-Fin tuna to increase. Further, governments must cut back the worlds four million fishing vesselsnearly double what is take to fish the ocean sustainablyand slash the estimated 25 billion dollars in government subsidies bestowed annually on the fishing industry. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 4) Setting quotas and marine sanctuariesBy creating quotas, Giant Blue-Fin tuna population can be maintained and can bring home the bacon an avenue for an increase in population. For giant bluefin in the Mediterranean, that may mean shutting down the fishery during the spawning season and substantially increase the minimum cat ch weight. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 4) But with this situation comes with effective and efficient brushup and enforcement among the state, agency and organization in-charge of the process. Also, by creating marine sanctuaries in the area, Giant Blue-Fin tuna can survive the excessive amount of fishing by fishermen in a certain area.Marine sanctuaries seek to protect the overall area where Giant Blue-Fin tuna are situated. This means that they cannot be caught. Another authoritative step, both in the Mediterranean and around the world, would be the creation of large marine protected areas. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 4) Campaigning for change can also help in the process of conservation and sustainability. Also important are campaigns by such groups as the Marine Stewardship Council, which is working with consumers as well as retail giants to promote trade in sustainably caught fish. (Montaigne, 2007, p. 4) Conclusion The Giant Blue-Fin tuna is characterized to be an important part of the o verall marine ecosystem. Taking them out in the overall system can create disparities and consequences in the marine ecosystem. Thus, the continuous decline of Giant Blue-Fin tuna must be intercommunicate to sustain the continuous demand of people in the future. By creating efficient and effective monitoring mechanisms as well as legislation, the lives of Giant Blue-Fin tuna shall be sustained.It is our responsibility to continue addressing this for it shall be the future generations that will suffer if actions shall not be put into place and changes to occur in near time.ReferencesMarineBio. org (2007) Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. Retrieved November 28, 2007 from http//marinebio. org/species. asp? id=236 Montaigne, F. (2007) Still Waters The Global Fish Crisis in National Geographic Interactive Edition. Retrieved November 28, 2007 from h http//www7. nationalgeographic. com/ngm/0704/feature1/index. html
Sunday, February 24, 2019
The around popular the Statesn warm fargon products are hamburgers, cheeseburgers, hot dogs and French fries. unshakable intellectual nourishment has become an principal(prenominal) character of the Ameri squirt Food Culture for a long time. In fact, America is called a fast food country due to its strong fast food habits. According to some surveys, Americans spend more m 1y on fast food than on education, new cars and computer software acquire 200 millions of Americans visit fast food restaurants weekly nearly 90 percents of American children visit McDonalds e really month.There are several reasons why this is happening. Firstly, as the industrialization and technology keep developing, Americans seem to be a great deal busier with their bread and butter. As a result, they pay much less(prenominal) attention and less time for their meals. People need foods which require short time to compass but still taste good. And those are exactly the characteristics that fast food ha s. Secondly, American culture is very individualistic. This individualism results in many populate living alone at a very young age.And those who are single or living alone are more liable(predicate) to rely on fast food, because they think it is simply a redundance of time to spend 45 minutes cooking and cleaning for one or at most two meals for one mortal. Many in the average households of two, three, or four feel the same way active cooking. Thirdly, fast food is very convenient. They can be packaged and carried everywhere. In addition, you can easily find fast food chains unconstipated at mid-night.Moreover, fast food companies have even simplified the get process by creating the drive-through restaurants, which allow customers to purchase products without leaving their cars. Next, fast food is usually cheap. Its affordable for the consumers, especially when the economy is having a rough time like these days. However, fast food is not good for our health. Fast food nutri tional information shows that most meals contain high numbers game of calories, saturated and trans- avoirdupois weights. In fact, you can eat all the calories your body need for the day in one meal.Furthermore, you will actually receive very little nutrients from all of these calories. The white breads, sugars and animal fats that are packed into most fast foods contain very few vitamins and minerals. Eating these foods with tons of calories and fat on a regular basis leads to obesity. Obesity has become a big problem in America. Americans are heavier and unhealthier than ever before. This has led to millions of the great unwashed suffering from threatening conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, reduced chock up strength and many other health elated problems. For someone who consumes these too much, it may lead to liver failure due to the high metre of fat, salts and oil in it. Too much of fast food on a regular basis can make a person overweight due to the extra calories given in those foods. It affects the concentration levels in studies and other activities too. Although fast food has a lot of bad sides, Americans can not eliminate them due to its conveniences. In short, fast food is an important part of the Food Culture it has become a way of life for many Americans.
interchange Ratio interchange and marketable securities/ incumbent liabilities 6,714,156/25,926,158 =0.03 (2009)6,369,431/17,605,301 = 0.36 (2008)7,014,387/16,340,517 = 0.43 (2007)Current Ratio cash +marketable securities+ net account receivables/ current liabilities 6,714,156+9,601,883/25,926,158 = 0.63 (2009)6,369,431+7,495,528/17,605,301 = 0.79 (2008)7,014,387+6,901,225/16,340,517 =0.85 (2007)Current Ratio current assets/ current liabilities44,497,169/25,926,158 = 1.72 (2009)36,195,745/17,605,301 = 2.06 (2008)36,005,390/16,340,517 = 2.20 (2007)Accounts receivable perturbation net sales/ fair make receivables (9,601,883 + 866,330) + (7,495,528+948,679) + (6,901,225 +862,690) = 26,676,335/3 = 8,892,111.7 average gross receivables 149,245,176/8,892,111.7 = 16.79 (2009)137,579,664/8,892,111.7 = 15.47 (2008)125,814,272/8,892,111.7 = 14.15 (2007)Days to collect receivables 365/accounts receivable turnover 365/16.79 = 21.74 eld (2009)365/15.47 = 23.59 geezerhood (2008)365/14.15 = 25.80 days (2007)Inventory turnover cost of goods shop/average inventory(28,031,323 +22,206,259 + 21,975,220) = 72,212,802 / 3 = 24,070,934 average inventory 104,807,966/24,070,934 = 4.35 (2009)96,595,908/24,070,934 = 4.01 (2008)88,685,361/24,070,934 = 3.68 (2007)Days to sell inventory 365/inventory turnover365/4.35 = 83.91 days (2009)365/4.01 = 91.02 days (2008)365/3.68 = 99.18 days (2007)Debt to beauteousness total liabilities/total equity25,926,158/55,825,756 = 0.46 (2009)17,605,301/52,758,726 = 0.33 (2008)16,340,517/50,872,536 = 0.32 (2007)Times interest earned in operation(p) income/interest expense6,171,502/1,897,346 = 3.25 (2009)5,998,463/2,128,905 = 2.82 (2008)4,745,339/2,085,177 = 2.28 (2007)Earning per sh be net income/average common shargons salient(ip) 3,260,411/1,000,000 = 3.26 (2009)2,470,557/1,000,000 = 2.47 (2008)1,493,609/1,000,000 = .1.49 (2007)Gross profit percent net sales cost of goods change/net sales (149,245,176- 104,807,966)/149,245,176 =29.77%(137,57 9,664 96,595,908)/137,579,664 =29.79%(125,814,272 88,685,361)/125,814,272 =29.51%Profit Margin operating income/net sales6,171,502/149,245,176 =0.045,998,463/137,579,664 =0.044,745,339/125,814,272 =0.04Return on assets income before taxes/average total assets(102,968,775 + 89,791,858 + 86,673,853)=279374486/3 =93,124,828.7 average total assets 4,274,156/93,124,828.7= 0.053,869,558/93,124,828.7=0.042,660,162/93,124,828.7=0.03Return on common equity income before taxes- best-loved dividends/average melody holder equity (55,825,756+52,758,726+50,872,536)=189,457,018/3 =63,152,339.3 average stock holder equity (4,274,156-0)/63,152,339.3 =0.07(3,869,558 -0)/63,152,339.3 =0.06(2,660,162 -0) / 63,152,339.3 =0.04B) Based on your calculations, assess the likelihood (high, medium, or low) that Pinnacle is likely to fail financially in the next 12 months. When reviewing the ratio calculations, it is apparent that the high societys likelihood of failing financially in the next 12 months is low. This is because it is apparent that the short-term debt paying ratios are down from the previous roles. For example, the current ratio has decreased from the preceding year concluding that the current assets can cover the current liabilities successfully. Also feeling at days to collect receivables is also lowered which presents that it takes less days for the company to collect their receivables implying that the monies owed to them are coming in more quickly. Lastly, in order for a company to succeed they need to have a good turnover rate for the inventory which is just what Pinnacle company has. The inventory turnover ratio is low indicating that it is taking fewerdays than before to sell inventory. C and D) are on the Excel Spreadsheet denominate Pinnacle Case Study Common-Size Income Statement C)Account Balance thought of $ of authorization Misstatement Training37,621Miscellaneous expenses74,791Rent125,115Legal Fees232,798Miscellaneous office expenses211,874D)Account BalanceEstimate of $ of Potential MisstatementWelburn functionTraining26,928Depreciation880,286Executive salaries174,362Solar-Electro DivisionLegal fees234,669Miscellaneous office expense202,331Machine-Tech DivisionDepreciation66,596E) Explain whether you believe the information in requirement c or d provides the most utilizable data for evaluating the potential for misstatements. Explain why.I believe that the information in requirement d provides the most useful data for evaluating the potential for misstatements because you can see exactly what distributively share is claiming in each sub-category. When employ the information in requirement c, you are getting an overview of what all the divisions have d unmatchable and cannot tell which division each misstatement is coming from. Also, by using information from requirement d, the auditor has a better chance of depicting the misstatements because you are focused on one specific division instead of trying to figure out which d ivision the misstatement might have been from. Requirement d is more informative thanusing requirement c.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
The Dutch Oven is a old version of a frying pan out or roasting pan. The dutch Ovens started production in the 1700s. Dutch ovens ar still used for soldieryy things, like cobblers and roasts. Dutch ovens were make of brass section in the first couple of years that they were made. Then a man by the name of Abraham Darby visited the Netherlands and wanted to watch the the production of the Dutch Oven. When he figured out how to desex the oven he traveled back to England. When he returned home he was trying to find a sort to make a cheaper version of the oven. His creation was made of a more economic metal of cast iron.The Americans found out about these dutch ovens and they brought them into their colonies. The famous patriot Paul Revere was credited with adding the peg legs on the softwoods and the monotonic top lid with a rack that would hold the coals. All of the modeltlers and the colonists that grant moved to america used these pot because of their durability and there versatility. When Lewis and Clark set out on there expositions they took a Dutch Oven with them all the way through the american west. The Dutch oven was one of the m each things that Lewis and Clark brought home with them at the end of there exposition.In the year of 1896 a man by the name of Joseph monastic order founded a company that would make and sell Dutch ovens. This company was located in the state of Tennessee. The name of this company is called Lodge the owner named it after himself. Today the company is sells more dutch ovens than any of the other companys in the world. There was also another company that was founded it was called Le Creuset.Le Creuset was built and constructed in the French town of Fresnoy-le-Grand. This company made Dutch Ovens and cooking supplies like Lodge did. Le Creuset is famous for the very good quality of its iron and for the really good quality of their decorate coatings. Even though the Dutch oven is a older style of pot it is still used today to cook food.
The paper analyzes the poem reverberate, written by Sylvia Plath. What it wants to immortalize be the multiple meanings which dep sack on the unlike readers. The paper is intended to show the importance of the reverberate and its aspect of the someone looking at into it. This paper overly explains how a poem butt serve a writer as an instrument to describe her/his manner and feelings on a sheet of paper. genus Silvia Plath? s husband was abusive to her. She felt lost, she was empty and had no conform to love in her carriage. But mess in her life was non caused only by her husband.The purpose of this paper is also to retort the unfathomed question if these personal things gift something in common with the poem and if she was non in some way trying to find her give birth personal identity in that Mirror. A short life summary Sylvia Plath was an American poet from Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts. She lived a very short thirty-year life which was riddled with stress and depression. In much of her later poetry, Sylvia Plath sought to give birth to a inventive or deep self hidden within her. 1 At the fester of 20 she tried to commit a self-destruction. But this try was unsuccessful.She died at the age of 31 after committing an separate (solely this time successful for her) suicide in 1963. Before she did so, she had written a few confessional poems. The confessional poetry of the mid-twentieth hundred dealt with subject matter that previously had not been openly discussed in American poetry. Before then, the main issue of poetry implicitly included critical of the poet? s private life, instead focusing upon public issues using a detached persona. The new confessional poems removed the mask that poets had been hiding behind and turn up an insight into the private lives of the poets. 2The poem Mirror is also one of the these poems, in which Sylvia exposes her private experiences, feelings and depression. That is why this poem is dark, to the full of unhappiness, and only picture the gentleman from a pessimistic point of view. Nevertheless, it is not only active her life and feelings, t here ar many other state involved. What or Who is the Mirror Something that rightfulnessfully reflects or gives a true picture of something else. 3 That would be open as a definition of these things in any dictionary. There argon many other things with the same function as a reverberate.Windows, glasses, lakes and puddles be totally means of display ones reflection. A description used by Sylvia Plath is very similar I am silver and exact. I have no prec one timeptions. What ever I examine I swallow immediately. only if as it is, unmisted by love or dislike. 4 The Mirror states that whatever it fools it takes in automatically, meaning that it is objective in every way. Does not matter if it is a close friend or an enemy. It does not deal with any feelings, neither love nor hatred. I am not cruel, only rightfulnessful.The eye o f a little god, four-cornered. 5 The mirror? s purpose is not to be cruel, solely to be equal. As it relates itself to a little god, it is supposed to be fairly-minded. The function is not to satisfy the subject looking into the mirror by showing him/her the person they want to see , exactly to display that person the way he/she really is. However, hearing the truth is something very bad to deal with in this life. Would any human creation dares to claim I have no preconceptions? There is very few people whose answer to this question would be yes. Still, Sylvia Plath is one of them.As her life was mostly full of sadness and loneliness, slowly but for sure, she had been losing her feelings and interest in the world and in the others. What is to be pointed in this paper is that Sylvia Plath actually represents the Mirror. That it is her, meditating on the face-to-face wall6. Meditate is a human characteristic, so the mirror is victorious in a human habit. The opposite wall illus trates other people she is in touch with, e. j. her husband, children and friends. Considering previous times in her life (like amount married and having children) she finds something pink, with speckles.After living a certain time of her life with her husband Ted Hughes, he became a classify of it and also his name was written deeply in her heart. I have looked at is so big I think it is a part of my heart. But this happiness was not neverending, after a few years of marriage, in 1962 the couple dislocated . It was claimed that Ted had been abusive to her and left Sylvia for another woman. That is why the last line of the prototypic stanza finishes with Faces and darkness separate us over and over. In the second stanza Plath goes on with the personification even with the shift from a mirror to a lake.It is not represented by her anymore. She stands for a woman bending over the lake, distinct for what she really is. That means that a lake provides more reflection than a mirror would have. Plath compares the mirror and the lake because in a mirror a person is not shown deformed but in a lake any little revolve or current distorts a person? s surface reflection and show them who they really are underneath the skin. So many times people seem happy and healthy on the outside but in the inside underneath the perfection which Plath had once been is a deviance they hide from the world and never want to let out.And when it does come to well-fixed they only reward with tears and an agitation of hands. But despite all of this, in everyone? s there is a hidden desire to recognize the truth. According to this, would be natural to wonder why everybody is turning to those liars, the candles or the moon. As it is described at the very end of this poem, Plath is not be that young girl anymore. What was reflected in the lake and mirror years ago, is not seen nowa twenty-four hourss. In me she has drowned a young girl, and in me an old woman. Sylvia, same li ke nada else, is not very pleased to see that picture of herself in the lake. canvass that image to a terrible fish, the reader finds out the Plath? s dissatisfaction with her coming into court (not only from the outside but also from the inside). Understanding the poem in general (not considering the writer) Firstly, it is necessary to ask a question what is easier Telling the truth? or Listening to it? Would not be much easier to lie? What do actually people want to hear? Is it really always the truth what the people are looking for? The thing why these questions has been asked is because in this part the mirror as well as the lake stands for the truth.Mirror shows here a truly thoughtful look into the different sights and feelings a mirror would have if it were a live conscious existence, unable to lie. The truth is vigour else but exact.. with not preconceptions. It reflects the person faithfully. It is something that gives a person a close to be delighted or depressed. By this poem and by showing the thoughts and emotions a mirror would emit, Sylvia wants us to look inward towards how we present ourselves to the others and especially to ourselves. It is an eye-opening poem, suggesting to study yourself the way you are and to present yourself this way.Not to play somebody? s else role, just because he/she is more popular for others. That is preferred to be done nowadays. Acting like others seems to be the easiest way to become popular. We are forgetting that a deal is not acting the way that others do, but being yourself. We find it hard to accept ourselves for who we truly are. But in the end we all essential come to face the facts about who we are and how we must accept and come to grips with it before our socially forced ideals consume us forever in a world of self-loathing. And how is it about listening to the truth?According to this poem a woman bends over the lake want to find what she truly desire to bring out (what is in this case beauty), but the lake truthfully reflects back to her what it sees. But because she does not find the answer she was looking for, she turns from the wrong reflection as if to look for the truth in something else, not expecting what she has just seen. It seems that people prefer turning to those liars, but on the other hand it also states I am important to her. Each sunrise it is her face that replaces the darkness. It denotes that even if we put the lie in advance, something inside is dumb interested in knowing the truth. The truth has not been forgotten in this life. It has just been changed for so-called little white lies which slowly but surely have been changing for bigger lies. Still, there is another problem being occurred.Simple question would be Who wants to get old? The answer would be even easier nobody. But as it is something natural, something that cannot be changed or stopped, we have to accept it. Nevertheless, not everyone knows how to deal with it. In me she has drown a yo ung girl, and in me an old woman. And that is why She rewards with tears and an agitation of hands. This is in many cases our own story as well. Not ready to admit the age, but exempt reminding it by looking into mirror or lake each day.Each day we are reminded by the mirror of our lost youth and beauty that was once projected back at us so faithfully. From a different point of view In relation to some experts already analyzing this poem, what we see in a mirror, is nothing but what is created by our own psyche, self-perceptions and self-conscience.all(a) a mirror is, is a sketch of what we think and how we feel about ourselves, may it be an image that comes from another? s perception of us or not. So it is only up to us how we decide to see ourselves in there. Conclusion In conclusion, according to Neslihan Ekmekcioglu in Sylvia Plath? s poetry, surfaces which are capable of reflecting images from within such as the mirror, the lake, the moon, indeed, stand for her desperate ap pear for her own identity and the reality of her inner psyche. 7 Nevertheless, it is not only reflecting Sylvia Plath? s life and feelings but it has a lot in common with people living these days. It shows the real problems of nowadays that everyone deals with. Everyone wants to be perfect and it is hard to discover our failure. The same like it is hard to find out the truth about ourselves. But only by learning from our own mistakes we can get better and only by knowing the truth about ourselves we can have a good life.Bibliographyhttp//www.angelfire.com/zine/donnamford/confessional.htmlhttp//www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5650