Saturday, November 16, 2019

Tata Motors Essay Example for Free

Tata Motors Essay Tata Motors Limited SWOT Analysis Description: The Tata Motors Limited SWOT Analysis company profile is the essential source for top-level company data and information. Tata Motors Limited SWOT Analysis examines the company’s key business structure and operations, history and products, and provides summary analysis of its key revenue lines and strategy. Tata Motors (or the company) is one of the leading automotive vehicle manufacturing companies in India. The company is engaged in the development, design, manufacture, assembly, and sale of vehicles including financing, as well as sale of related parts and accessories. The company primarily operates India, South Korea, South Africa, Thailand, Bangladesh, Singapore, Spain, and the UK. It is headquartered in Mumbai, India and employs about 49,856 people. The company recorded revenues of INR925,192.5 million ($19,530.8 million) during the financial year ended March 2010 (FY2010), an increase of 30.5% over FY2009. The operating profit of the company was INR42,288.3 million ($892.7 million) during FY2010, as compared to the operating loss of INR6,580 million ($138.9 million) in FY2009. The net profit was INR25,710.6 million ($542.8 million) in FY2010, as compared to the net loss of INR25,052.5 million ($528.8 million) in FY2009. Scope of the Report Provides all the crucial information on Tata Motors Limited required for business and competitor intelligence needs Contains a study of the major internal and external factors affecting Tata Motors Limited in the form of a SWOT analysis as well as a breakdown and examination of leading product revenue streams of Tata Motors Limited -Data is supplemented with details on Tata Motors Limited history, key executives, business description, locations and subsidiaries as well as a list of products and services and the latest available statement from Tata Motors Limited Reasons to Purchase Support sales activities by understanding your customers’ b usinesses better Qualify prospective partners and suppliers Keep fully up to date on your competitors’ business structure, strategy and prospects Obtain the most up to date company information available Contents: SWOT COMPANY PROFILE: Tata Motors Limited Key Facts: Tata Motors Limited Company Overview: Tata Motors Limited Business Description: Tata Motors Limited Company History: Tata Motors Limited Key Employees: Tata Motors Limited Key Employee Biographies: Tata Motors Limited Products Services Listing: Tata Motors Limited Products Services Analysis: Tata Motors Limited SWOT analysis: Tata Motors Limited -Strengths: Tata Motors Limited -Weaknesses: Tata Motors Limited -Opportunities: Tata Motors Limited -Threats: Tata Motors Limited Company View: Tata Motors Limited Top Competitors: Tata Motors Limited Location and Subsidiary: Tata Motors Limited -Head Office: Tata Motors Limited -Other Locations and Subsidiaries: Tata Motors Limited Ordering: Order Online http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/554957/ Order by Fax using the form below Order by Post print the order form below and send to Research and Markets, Guinness Centre, Taylors Lane, Dublin 8, Ireland. 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Thursday, November 14, 2019

One Love A Look into the Life of Bob Marley Essay -- Essays Papers

One Love A Look into the Life of Bob Marley One Love Bob Marley is a name most people know but his accomplishments and dedication to music is often overlooked. Bob was more than just a reggae artist he was an inspiration to country of Jamaica. He was role model to the poverty stricken island and gave hope to many people. He was a god. His influence spread around the world. His dreams are still alive and will live on in the hearts of his people. Bob Marley was born on February 6, 1945 in his grandfather’s house. He was the son of a poor farm girl and a British naval Captain who fell in love. Soon after his birth Bob’s father, Norval Marley left his mother leaving her a son to raise. He remained responsible and provided financial support and occasionally came back to see them. In the 50’s a depression hit Jamaica and Bob followed his mother to West Kingston otherwise known as Trenchtown. It was in Trenchtown were Bob’s love for music began. He and his friend Neville Livingstone or â€Å"Bunny† began to attend music classes. Through the classes the two meet Peter McIntosh and they formed the Wailing Wailers. The band recorded their first song in 1962, Judge Not. From there he started a record label Tuff Gong and recorded over 20 albums. Bob had a huge influence on society through his music. He encouraged people to rise up against the unfair government officials in songs such a Crazy Baldheads and Get up Stand up. A baldhead is a term for anyone not a Rast...

Monday, November 11, 2019

Styal Mill Coursework Notes

Coursework factors Finally he decided on Styal, a small hamlet north of Wilmslow. Styal is located close to Manchester, the Bridge water canal is only 8 miles away and the land was big enough. One of the important reasons Greg chose the site is because of the transport links. The bridge water canal would provide easy shipping of cotton near to the mill, then the last few miles would have to be done by horse and cart. Manchester is close to Styal, this is good because Manchester was one of the biggest industrial cities and this would provide Greg with workers and raw materials.Liverpool is relatively close to Styal. Geographical factors also played a part in the choosing of the Styal location because on that land the river Bolin flowed through. Greg used the river Bolin as a power source for his mill and the machinery. Arkwrites water frame was invented to use the water to drive the wheel and drive lots of cogs and shafts that made the machinery run. Another factor is the land was che ap. This is because the land was infertile and wasn't very good for farming crops, so Greg got a good deal – cheap land with an added bonus, the river Bolin.Also the land was a good environment for cotton making because it had a damp atmosphere; this helps the cotton to not break as its being spun. Another factor was workers. Styal was close to many towns and cities. The main one was Manchester. Greg could employ workers from workhouses in Manchester to come and work in his mill. This was easy because Manchester was very close. Greg could also employ people from Liverpool for the same reasons. Also Greg employed a few people from as far as London also. Another factor was money. Greg came into a lot of money, ? 800. Samuel Greg chose the site for Quarry Bank Mill because: – It was near a river.The machines were powered by water and Samuel Greg needed a lot of water. Water – power is a cheap, reliable, fast flowing and easy source of getting power. Water was also needed to give to the workers to drink and put into the food. -There was a lot of land in the countryside. The more land Samuel Greg had, the bigger his factory could be and the more machines he could have. Samuel Greg got investors to pay towards him buying the land, as well as the huge amount of money he already had. The land he did choose was cheap anyway so not many investors were needed. -With the land being in the countryside, there was a lot of soil to grow crops in.The crops that were grown were given to the workers to eat at meal times. -Quarry Bank Mill was quite close to the main destinations Liverpool and Manchester. This was probably so that goods could travel to both of the destinations at the same amount of time. Lots of the cotton that Quarry Bank Mill produced was taken to the main destinations as cotton was popular there and could easily be sold for the price Samuel Greg wanted. Liverpool gave Quarry bank Mill the materials it needed to make cotton and Manchester s old the cotton. Transport like canals ; factor

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Apple and Child Labor Essay

Children and teenagers everyday are put into child labor, to make money for their families or pay back what their families borrowed. In this paper I will examine child labor around the world and why children need to be able to live without being put under such stress and poor living circumstances. I will also be talking about how child labor is involved in some electronic companies like Samsung and Foxconn. Lastly, I will be talking about what most people don’t know; within the last couple years the world’s most known electronic company; Apple, Inc. has been one of the guiltiest culprits of child labor and of poisoning their employee’s. Child labor is known all over the world, and we need to put a stop to it now! Although child labor is illegal in many countries, many children under the age of twelve still are employed in these harsh work forces. Many under age employees are employed by using a fake identification (Thompson). By using a fake identification, children or teenagers can be mistaken for an adult. If the employer says or provides an identification that shows he is age eligible and they accept him for the job, no one would know any different. It is not in the hands of the hiring company to know that the employer is using a fake identification. Children and teenagers are not getting fake identifications and working in these factories for no reason. They are to pay back the money that their family has borrowed from others, or the lack of ability to get an education. Child labor could be caused by problems in the family, with health, or lack of food, money, or water. Multiple governments around the world look the other way. Child labor is illegal but some governments do not punish the companies or groups that use child labor. Child labor is very cruel to the children. Governments and rulers around the world insist that if adults of a family borrow money, the family has to pay it back no matter what, even if it means selling their crops for money or putting their children into the work force. Due to the fact that children and teenagers are working at such a young age, the children are committing suicide and other self-harms. This should not be happening; young adults committing suicide because they are so stressed or they do not want to work at these companies but also because they are being accused of stealing products. For example, one of Apple’s suppliers, Foxconn, accused one of their employees of stealing an iPhone prototype. The employee would not dare to steal an iPhone and would not have done such a thing to get himself in trouble. The possibilities of his pay being withheld and being physically punished was very high for the employee. As a result he killed himself; he did not want to be under the large amount of stress added to the amount that he already had (Usher). This occurs in a lot of work forces, where the employees get so stressed and out of control that they cannot bare to live anymore; it happens especially in electronic factories in Asia. Many people think of child labor being associated with clothing, furniture, or toys, but in reality it’s not. Child labor is known in every industry. One industry that we all use is the electronic industry. Child labor is used in the electronic industry in a big way, not as much as clothing or furniture, but close to it. The Apple IPAD tablet you are holding in your hand, the Apple T.V media portal you are watching shows off of each night, the Apple Iphone you just used to call or text your friend, are all made with the help of child labour. Apple’s major provider Foxconn, has been proven to have employees under the age of Twelve (Usher). Foxconn’s manufacturing plants in Asia have admitted to having child employees that have been poisoned, and some have committed suicide (Usher). This is a situation Apple has a difficult time controlling. The use of child labor in the electronic industry should not be happening at all. It should not be happening in any industry period. Child Labour has been used to try and sabotage the success of certain companies. Samsung was accused of having workers under the age of twelve working in their factories [Thompson]. Samsung has denied the fact that they have underage workers. The rumor was created by RIM (Blackberry) to sabotage Samsung and gain an advantage in the marketplace. Samsung does not have employees under the age of twelve working for them. The name Steve Jobs brings so many amazing thoughts into your head, how he was the co-founder of the largest high tech companies in the wold, the go to guy and CEO of Apple, a multi-billionaire, and philanthropist (In Your Face Radio). Steve Jobs was an amazing man, but in realty he was just like a lot of other top executives, which get carried away with their money and make some bad decisions (In Your Face Radio). Many people think that Jobs was the one who started exploiting children in the business. It was said that Steve Jobs that created the child labor issues in the business because he lost focus and innovation in what he was doing, lost control of his factories and caused such a dilemma in the industry that almost broke the company’s reputation. (Does Steve†¦). Apple’s factory, Foxconn, has been caught with having 164 children in total working in many different factories around the world. (Clarke and Williams). Foxconn has been caught poisoning their employees with n-hexane, and have also been caught for abusing their workers. Tim Costello led a study in Taiwan, and went into to Foxconn and created a report based on the workers lives in Foxconn. The study showed that the company was abusing their employees by â€Å"corporal violence† (Myslewski). Now this is in Foxconn’s factories where they make the parts for the Apple devices. Foxconn has fully admitted to all of the above. The major part of Apple’s manufacturing that is using child labor is Foxconn. As I said earlier Foxconn is the company with over 164 children working in its factory, they have been caught abusing and poisoning their employees. Foxconn is relied upon a lot by Apple. By being caught employing children to manufacture components, has caused an upset within Apple, and the ability to reply on Foxconn has come into question. Apple is an amazing company; however we need to know more about what goes on behind the closed doors within their manufacturing plants and their manufacturing partners facilities. In my opinion Apple is guilty in this situation of child labor. Personally I will continue to use Apple’s products because I believe Foxconn needs to organize their company and other factories that Apple is associated with or Apple needs to find another supplier. In order to fix the crisis of child labor I think that there should be a worldwide legal age to work and which each government must implement. This will decrease the young aged employees that work in countries like India, China, Japan, Pakistan, and many more. Due to there being no worldwide legal working age, problems like child labor occur. Child labor needs to stop, and companies like Apple can lead the way to change just like they have led the way in technology.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

The JonBenet Ramsey Murder Investigation

The JonBenet Ramsey Murder Investigation On Dec. 26, 1996, JonBenet Ramseys 6-year-old body was found in the basement of her Boulder, Colorado home after a ransom note was found demanding money for her return. Family members came under suspicion in the investigation, although a strangers DNA was found on the girls clothing. No one has ever been officially charged with a crime in the case, which remains unsolved. Here are the latest developments in the JonBenet Ramsey murder investigation: Chief: Cops Botched JonBenet Crime Scene Feb. 25, 2015 - A former Boulder, Colorado police chief says his officers should have done a better job of securing the crime scene at the home where JonBenet Ramsey was found killed. Mark Beckner said a lack of manpower due to the Christmas holiday was partly to blame for the confusion at the scene. In an online question and answer session, Beckner said detectives should have separated the parents, John and Patsy Ramsey, and taken full statements from each of them on day one. Instead, when the couple lawyered up they were released and allowed to go home and were not formally interviewed again until five months later. Beckner called that decision a big mistake. During the online session, Beckner also criticized the Boulder district attorneys office for getting too involved in the investigation. Beckner said that he believes the DNA found on the 6-year-olds clothing is the key to finding a suspect in the case, but he also said he does not think anyone will ever be convicted of the 1996 murder, due mainly to mistakes his department made that first day. Previous Developments Jury Indicted JonBenets Parents, But D.A. Balked in 1999Jan. 28, 2013The grand jury investigating the death of JonBenet Ramsey indicted both her parents in 1999, but the district attorney refused to sign the indictment and prosecute the case. District Attorney Alex Hunter did not believe he had enough evidence to convict John and Patsy Ramsey for child abuse resulting in a death, according to an investigative report by a Boulder newspaper. Police Plan Interviews in JonBenet CaseOct. 4, 2010Investigators have planned a new series of interviews in the unsolved JonBenet Ramsey case, but it may not be new evidence that has prompted the activity. An advisory committee, made up of investigators from several state and federal agencies, recommended the new round of interviews after meeting in 2009. JonBenet Ramsey Case Returned to Boulder PoliceFeb. 3, 2009Saying they will use new technology, expertise, and an advisory task force to try to solve the crime, the Boulder Police Department has taken the reins again in the investigation of the JonBenet Ramsey murder. For the past six years, the investigation has been handled by the district attorneys office. Ramseys Cleared in JonBenet Murder CaseJuly 9, 2008The Boulder, Colorado district attorney has released a letter officially clearing members of the Ramsey family of any involvement in the December 1996 death of 6-year-old JonBenet Ramsey after newly discovered DNA evidence points to a male perpetrator not associated with the family or law enforcement. The DNA evidence, found on another piece of JonBenets clothing, matches previous evidence found on her panties in 1997. John Mark Karr Arrested in Domestic DisputeJuly 7, 2007The man who gained the national spotlight by confessing to the murder of JonBenet Ramsey has been arrested and jailed following a domestic dispute at his fathers house in Sandy Springs, Georgia, near Atlanta. Police said they arrested Karr after they received a 9-1-1 call reporting an argument between Karr, his girlfriend, and his father. John Mark Karr Now Free to RoamOct. 5, 2006John Mark Karr, the substitute elementary school teacher who falsely confessed to the murder of JonBenet Ramsey to get out of Thailand, is now a free man after child pornography charges were dismissed against him in California after prosecutors admitted they did not have enough evidence to go to trial. Sonoma County Superior Court Judge Rene Chouteau ordered Karr released immediately. Karr Turns Down Pornography Plea DealSept. 22, 2006John Mark Karr, who gave a false confession in the JonBenet Ramsey case, has rejected a plea deal from California prosecutors that would have allowed him to walk out of jail and serve a probation sentence on child pornography charges. His lawyer said Karr maintains his innocence and refuses to plead guilty to a crime that he did not commit. Charges Dropped in JonBenet Ramsey CaseAug. 28, 2006Colorado prosecutors have decided not to charge John Mark Karr with the murder of six-year-old JonBenet Ramsey on December 26, 1996, after DNA tests failed to link the suspect to the crime scene evidence. The warrant on Mr. Karr has been dropped by the district attorney, public defender Seth Temin said. They are not proceeding with the case. Arrest of JonBenet Suspect Raises Many QuestionsAug. 17, 2006The arrest of 41-year-old John Mark Karr in Bangkok, Thailand for the murder of JonBenet Ramsey in 1996 and his statements to investigators have raised concerns about the validity of his confession. A news conference by Boulder, Colorado District Attorney Mary Lacy today revealed no insight into the investigation, as she refused to make any comments on evidence in the case. Teacher Arrested in JonBenet Ramsey CaseAug. 16, 2006A man currently being held in Thailand on unrelated sexual charges has been arrested in connection with the murder of six-year-old JonBenet Ramsey in her Boulder, Colorado home almost ten years ago. The suspect, who authorities say has confessed to the murder, will be returned to the United States within the next week. JonBenet Ramsey Investigator Changes AgainMarch 20, 2006The lead investigator for the JonBenet Ramsey murder case is about to change again, but the new detective is one who once worked exclusively on the Christmas 1996 death of the six-year-old daughter of John and Patsy Ramsey. Tom Bennett, a retired detective from the Arvada Police Department, joined the Boulders prosecutors office in 2003 working exclusively on the Ramsey case, working 20 to 30 hours a week. JonBenets Killer Linked to Another Rape?Dec. 20, 2004Investigators in the JonBenet Ramsey murder case believe the intruder who killed the six-year-old may have struck again nine months later, sexually assaulting an eight-year-old girl, who was in the same dance class with JonBenet, in her Boulder, Colorado bedroom. A CBS 48 Hours Mystery report also says DNA evidence in the JonBenet case points to a male not associated with the Ramsey family. For most of the eight years since the murder, the investigation was focused almost exclusively on members of the Ramsey family. The JonBenet Ramsey Murder Investigation Around 5:30 a.m. the morning after Christmas Day, 1996, Patsy Ramsey found a ransom note on the familys back staircase demanding $118,000 for her six-year-old daughter, JonBenet, and called 911. Later that day, John Ramsey discovered JonBenets body in a spare room in the basement. She had been strangled with a garrote, and her mouth had been bound with duct tape. John Ramsey removed the duct tape and carried her body upstairs. The Early Investigation From the very beginning, the investigation into the death of JonBenet Ramsey focused on members of the family. Boulder, Colorado investigators went to the Atlanta home of the Ramseys to search for a clue and served a search warrant on their summer home in Michigan. Police took hair and blood samples from members of the Ramsey family. The Ramseys tell the press there is a killer on the loose, but Boulder officials downplay the prospect that a killer is threatening city residents. The Ransom Note The investigation into the murder of JonBenet Ramsey focused on the three-page ransom note, which was apparently written on a notepad found in the house. Handwriting samples were taken from the Ramseys, and John Ramsey was ruled out as the author of the note, but police could not eliminate Patsy Ramsey as the writer. District Attorney Alex Hunter tells the media that the parents are obviously the focus of the investigation. Expert Prosecution Task Force District attorney Hunter forms an Expert Prosecution Task Force, including forensic expert Henry Lee and DNA expert Barry Scheck. In March 1997 retired homicide detective Lou Smit, who solved the Heather Dawn Church murder in Colorado Spring, is hired to head the investigation team. Smits investigation would eventually point to an intruder as the perpetrator, which conflicted with the DAs theory that someone in the family was responsible for JonBenets death. Conflicting Theories From the beginning of the case, there was a disagreement between investigators and the DAs office about the focus of the investigation. In August 1997, Detective Steve Thomas resigns, saying the DAs office is thoroughly compromised. In September, Lou Smit also resigns saying he, cannot in good conscience be a part of the persecution of innocent people. Lawrence Schillers book, Perfect Murder, Perfect Town, describes the feud between police and prosecutors. Burke Ramsey After 15 months of investigation, the Boulder police decide the best way to solve the murder is a grand-jury investigation. In March 1998, police interview John and Patsy Ramsey a second time and do an extensive interview with their 11-year-old son Burke, who was reported as a possible suspect by some in the press. A leak to the news media indicates that Burkes voice could be heard in the background of the 911 call Patsy made, although she said he was asleep until after police arrived. Grand Jury Convenes On Sept. 16, 1998, five months after they were chosen, Boulder County grand jurors began their investigation. They heard forensic evidence, analysis of handwriting, DNA evidence, and hair and fiber evidence. They visited the Ramseys former Boulder home in October 1998. In December of 1998, the grand jury recesses for four months while DNA evidence from other members of the Ramsey family, who were not suspects, can be compared to that found at the scene. Hunter and Smit Clash In February 1999, District Attorney Alex Hunter demanded that detective Lou Smit return evidence that he collected while he worked on the case, including crime scene photographs. Smit refuses even if I have to go to jail because he believed the evidence would be destroyed if returned because it supported the intruder theory. Hunter filed a restraining order and got a court injunction demanding the evidence. Hunter also refused to allow Smit to testify before the grand jury. Smit Seeks Court Order Detective Lou Smit filed a motion asking Judge Roxanne Bailin to allow him to address the grand jury. It is not clear if Judge Bailin granted his motion, but on March 11, 1999, Smit testified before the jury. Later that same month, district attorney Alex Hunter signed an agreement allowing Smit to keep the evidence he had collected in the case but prohibited Smit from relaying prior conversations with Ramsey prosecutors and not interfere with the on-going investigation. No Indictments Returned After a year-long grand jury investigation, DS Alex Hunter announces that no charges will be filed and no one will be indicted for the murder of JonBenet Ramsey. At the time, several media reports suggested that it was Smits testimony that swayed the grand jury to not return an indictment. The Suspicions Continue In spite of the grand jury decision, members of the Ramsey family continued to remain under suspicion in the media. The Ramseys adamantly proclaimed their innocence from the very beginning. John Ramsey said he thought that someone in the family could be responsible for JonBenets murder was nauseating beyond belief. But those denials did not keep the press from speculating that either Patsy, Burke or John himself were involved. Burke Not a Suspect In May 1999, Burke Ramsey was secretly questioned by the grand jury. The following day, authorities finally said that Burke was not a suspect, only a witness. As the grand jury began to wind down its investigation, John and Patsy Ramsey are forced to move from their Atlanta-area home avoid the onslaught of media attention. Ramseys Fight Back In March 2002, the Ramseys released their book, The Death of Innocence, about the battle they have fought to reclaim their innocence. The Ramseys filed a series of libel lawsuits against media outlets, including the Star, the New York Post, Time Warner, the Globe and the publishers of the book A Little Girls Dream? A JonBenet Ramsey Story. Federal Judge Clears Ramseys In May 2003, an Atlanta federal judge dismissed a civil lawsuit against John and Patsy Ramsey saying there was no evidence showing the parents killed JonBenet and abundant evidence that an intruder killed the child. The judge criticized the police and the FBI for creating a media campaign designed to make the family look guilty.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Iraq Government, Facts, and History

Iraq Government, Facts, and History The modern nation of Iraq is built upon foundations that go back to some of humanitys earliest complex cultures. It was in Iraq, also known as Mesopotamia, that Babylonian king Hammurabi regularized the law in the Code of Hammurabi, c. 1772 BCE. Under Hammurabis system, society would inflict upon a criminal the same harm that the criminal had inflicted upon his victim. This is codified in the famous dictum, An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. More recent Iraqi history, however, tends to support the Mahatma Gandhis take on this rule. He is supposed to have said that An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind. Capital and Major Cities Capital: Baghdad, population 9,500,000 (2008 estimate) Major cities: Mosul, 3,000,000 Basra, 2,300,000 Arbil, 1,294,000 Kirkuk, 1,200,000 Government of Iraq The Republic of Iraq is a parliamentary democracy. The head of state is the president, currently Jalal Talabani, while the head of government is Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki. The unicameral parliament is called the Council of Representatives; its 325 members serve four-year terms. Eight of those seats are specifically reserved for ethnic or religious minorities. Iraqs judiciary system consists of the Higher Judicial Council, the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Court of Cassation, and lower courts. (Cassation literally means to quash - it is another term for appeals, evidently taken from the French legal system.) Population Iraq has a total population of about 30.4 million. The population growth rate is an estimated 2.4%. About 66% of Iraqis live in urban areas. Some 75-80% of Iraqis are Arabs. Another 15-20% are Kurds, by far the largest ethnic minority; they live primarily in northern Iraq. The remaining roughly 5% of the population is made up of Turkomen, Assyrians, Armenians, Chaldeans and other ethnic groups. Languages Both Arabic and Kurdish are official languages of Iraq. Kurdish is an Indo-European language related to Iranian languages. Minority languages in Iraq include Turkoman, which is a Turkic language; Assyrian, a Neo-Aramaic language of the Semitic language family; and Armenian, an Indo-European language with possible Greek roots. Thus, although the total number of languages spoken in Iraq is not high, the linguistic variety is great. Religion Iraq is an overwhelmingly Muslim country, with an estimated 97% of the population following Islam. Perhaps, unfortunately, it is also among the most evenly divided countries on Earth in terms of Sunni and Shia populations; 60 to 65% of Iraqis are Shia, while 32 to 37% are Sunni. Under Saddam Hussein, the Sunni minority controlled the government, often persecuting Shias. Since the new constitution was implemented in 2005, Iraq is supposed to be a democratic country, but the Shia/Sunni split is a source of much tension as the nation sorts out a new form of government. Iraq also has a small Christian community, around 3% of the population. During the nearly decade-long war following the US-led invasion in 2003, many Christians fled Iraq for Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, or western countries. Geography Iraq is a desert country, but it is watered by two major rivers - the Tigris and the Euphrates. Only 12% of Iraqs land is arable. It controls a 58 km (36 miles) coast on the Persian Gulf, where the two rivers empty into the Indian Ocean. Iraq is bordered by Iran to the east, Turkey and Syria to the north, Jordan and Saudi Arabia to the west, and Kuwait to the southeast. Its highest point is Cheekah Dar, a mountain in the north of the country, at 3,611 m (11,847 feet). Its lowest point is sea level. Climate As a subtropical desert, Iraq experiences extreme seasonal variation in temperature. In parts of the country, July and August temperatures average over 48 °C (118 °F). During the rainy winter months of December through March, however, temperatures drop below freezing not infrequently. Some years, heavy mountain snow in the north produces dangerous flooding on the rivers. The lowest temperature recorded in Iraq was -14 °C (7 °F). The highest temperature was 54 °C (129 °F). Another key feature of Iraqs climate is the sharqi, a southerly wind that blows from April through early June, and again in October and November. It gusts up to 80 kilometers per hour (50 mph), causing sandstorms that can be seen from space. Economy The economy of Iraq is all about oil; black gold provides more than 90% of government revenue  and accounts for 80% of the countrys foreign exchange income. As of 2011, Iraq was producing 1.9 million barrels per day of oil, while consuming 700,000 barrels per day domestically. (Even as it exports almost 2 million barrels per day, Iraq also imports 230,000 barrels per day.) Since the start of the US-led War in Iraq in 2003, foreign aid has become a major component of Iraqs economy, as well. The US has pumped some $58 billion dollars worth of aid into the country between 2003 and 2011; other nations have pledged an additional $33 billion in reconstruction aid. Iraqs workforce is employed primarily in the service sector, although about 15 to 22% work in agriculture. The unemployment rate is around 15%, and an estimated 25% of Iraqis live below the poverty line. The Iraqi currency is the dinar. As of February 2012, $1 US is equal to 1,163 dinars. History of Iraq Part of the Fertile Crescent, Iraq was one of the early sites of complex human civilization and agricultural practice. Once called Mesopotamia, Iraq was the seat of the Sumerian and Babylonian cultures c. 4,000 - 500 BCE. During this early period, Mesopotamians invented or refined technologies such as writing and irrigation; the famous King Hammurabi (r. 1792- 1750 BCE) recorded the law in the Code of Hammurabi, and over a thousand of years later, Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 605 - 562 BCE) built the incredible Hanging Gardens of Babylon. After about 500 BCE, Iraq was ruled by a succession of Persian dynasties, such as the Achaemenids, the Parthians, the Sassanids and the Seleucids. Although local governments existed in Iraq, they were under Iranian control until the 600s CE. In 633, the year after the Prophet Muhammad died, a Muslim army under Khalid ibn Walid invaded Iraq. By 651, the soldiers of Islam had brought down the Sassanid Empire in Persia  and began to Islamicize the region that is now Iraq and Iran. Between 661 and 750, Iraq was a dominion of the Umayyad Caliphate, which ruled from Damascus (now in Syria). The Abbasid Caliphate, which ruled the Middle East and North Africa from 750 to 1258, decided to build a new capital closer to the political power hub of Persia. It built the city of Baghdad, which became a center of Islamic art and learning. In 1258, catastrophe struck the Abbasids and Iraq in the form the Mongols under Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. The Mongols demanded that Baghdad surrender, but the Caliph Al-Mustasim refused. Hulagus troops laid siege to Baghdad, taking the city with at least 200,000 Iraqi dead. The Mongols also burned the Grand Library of Baghdad and its wonderful collection of documents - one of the great crimes of history. The caliph himself was executed by being rolled in a carpet and trampled by horses; this was an honorable death in Mongol culture  because none of the caliphs noble blood touched the ground. Hulagus army would meet defeat by the Egyptian Mamluk slave-army in the Battle of Ayn Jalut. In the Mongols wake, however, the Black Death carried away about a third of Iraqs population. In 1401, Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) captured Baghdad  and ordered another massacre of its people. Timurs fierce army only controlled Iraq for a few years  and was supplanted by the Ottoman Turks. The Ottoman Empire would rule Iraq from the fifteenth century through 1917  when Britain wrested the Middle East from Turkish control and the Ottoman Empire collapsed. Iraq Under Britain Under the British/French plan to divide the Middle East, the 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement, Iraq became part of the British Mandate. On November 11, 1920, the region became a British mandate under the League of Nations, called the State of Iraq. Britain brought in a (Sunni) Hashemite king from the region of Mecca and Medina, now in Saudi Arabia, to rule over the primarily Shia Iraqis and Kurds of Iraq, sparking widespread discontent and rebellion. In 1932, Iraq gained nominal independence from Britain, although the British-appointed King Faisal still ruled the country and the British military had special rights in Iraq. The Hashemites ruled until 1958  when King Faisal II was assassinated in a coup led by Brigadier General Abd al-Karim Qasim. This signaled the beginning of a rule by a series of strongmen over Iraq, which lasted through 2003. Qasims rule survived for just five years, before being overthrown in turn by Colonel Abdul Salam Arif in February of 1963. Three years later, Arifs brother took power after the colonel died; however, he would rule Iraq for just two years before being deposed by a Baath Party-led coup in 1968. The Baathist government was led by Ahmed Hasan Al-Bakir at first, but he was slowly elbowed aside over the next decade by Saddam Hussein. Saddam Hussein formally seized power as president of Iraq in 1979. The following year, feeling threatened by rhetoric from the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the new leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Saddam Hussein launched an invasion of Iran that led to the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War. Hussein himself was a secularist, but the Baath Party was dominated by Sunnis. Khomeini hoped that Iraqs Shiite majority would rise up against Hussein in an Iranian Revolution-style movement, but that did not happen. With support from the Gulf Arab states and the United States, Saddam Hussein was able to fight the Iranians to a stalemate. He also took the opportunity to use chemical weapons against tens of thousands of Kurdish and Marsh Arab civilians within his own country, as well as against the Iranian troops, in blatant violation of international treaty norms and standards. Its economy ravaged by the Iran-Iraq War, Iraq decided to invade the small but wealthy neighboring nation of Kuwait in 1990. Saddam Hussein announced that he had annexed Kuwait; when he refused to withdraw, the United Nations Security Council voted unanimously to take military action in 1991 in order to oust the Iraqis. An international coalition led by the United States (which had been allied with Iraq just three years earlier) routed the Iraqi Army in a matter of months, but Saddam Husseins troops set fire to Kuwaiti oil wells on their way out, causing an ecological disaster along the Persian Gulf coast. This fighting would come to be known as the First Gulf War. Following the First Gulf War, the United States patrolled a no-fly zone over the Kurdish north of Iraq to protect civilians there from Saddam Husseins government; Iraqi Kurdistan began to function as a separate country, even while nominally still part of Iraq. Throughout the 1990s, the international community was concerned that Saddam Husseins government was trying to develop nuclear weapons. In 1993, the US also learned that Hussein had made a plan to assassinate President George H. W. Bush during the First Gulf War. The Iraqis allowed UN weapons inspectors into the country, but expelled them in 1998, claiming that they were CIA spies. In October of that year, US President Bill Clinton called for regime change in Iraq. After George W. Bush became president of the United States in 2000, his administration began to prepare for a war against Iraq. Bush the younger resented Saddam Husseins plans to kill Bush the elder and made the case that Iraq was developing nuclear weapons despite the rather flimsy evidence. The September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and Washington DC gave Bush the political cover he needed to launch a Second Gulf War, even though Saddam Husseins government had nothing to do with al-Qaeda or the 9/11 attacks. Iraq War The Iraq War began on March 20, 2003, when a US-led coalition invaded Iraq from Kuwait. The coalition drove the Baathist regime out of power, installing an Iraqi Interim Government in June of 2004, and organizing free elections for October of 2005. Saddam Hussein went into hiding  but was captured by US troops on December 13, 2003. In the chaos, sectarian violence broke out across the country between the Shia majority and the Sunni minority; al-Qaeda seized the opportunity to establish a presence in Iraq. Iraqs interim government tried Saddam Hussein for the killing of Iraqi Shiites in 1982  and sentenced him to death. Saddam Hussein was hanged on December 30, 2006. After a surge of troops to quell violence in 2007-2008, the US withdrew from Baghdad in June of 2009  and left Iraq completely in December of 2011.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Physiological effects of recreational drugs on the human body Essay

Physiological effects of recreational drugs on the human body - Essay Example A fine line exists between recreational and dangerous, illegal drugs and often, these two terms are interchanged. Most of the time, the line drawn in terms of legality, abuse and risk of use involved ("Recreational drug use", 2006). History tells us that drug use has been around for quite a long time now. Caffeine, tobacco and alcohol along with natural drug derivatives such as poppy, marijuana and hemp have been consumed by our ancestors since the time their use has been discovered (Burger, 1995; Burger, n.d.). Modern recreational drugs include ecstasy, cocaine and LSD among others. Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is one of the most common recreational drugs used in the U.S. and other parts of the world. Marijuana leaves often referred to it's street names "mary jane", "weed", "grass" etc. is usually rolled and smoked in cigarette form (called a "joint" or "nail") or in a pipe (known as a "bong"). The active ingredient in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) which starts a series of pleasurable reactions in the brain referred to as a "high" (National institute on drug abuse, 2004). Smoking a joint usually has no effect on the first use, but its effects are manifested after the second or third use. It affects short term memory but does not hinder physical coordination and there are no reported case yet of overdose ("Pocket guide to recreational drugs", 1995). From 2000 to 2002 marijuana use rose up to 24% in the U.S. alone and is considered to be the 3rd most abused drug reported in hospital emergency cases (National institute on drug abuse, 2004). THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) the active ingredient found in marijuana affects the brain differently than other drugs. It increases the secretion rate of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure. Dopamine in return affects the limbic system, the area of the brain associated with emotion and behaviour control (Young, 1997). THC circulates fast from the lungs to the bloodstream as a joint is smoked (National institute on drug abuse, 2004). As THC passes thru the brain, it connects to specific areas called cannaboid receptors on the neural cells. Not all neural cells have the same amount of cannaboid receptors and often a large amount of these type of receptors are found in brain areas associated with pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement (Herkenham et al, 1990; National institute on drug abuse, 2004). Effects of marijuana use on the heart Although none has ever died from marijuana related cardiac failure, persons with arteriosclerosis or propensity to heart failure may develop complications from smoking marijuana. Smoking a joint induces tachycardia (brisk rise in heartbeat) along with increase in heart failure similar to when a person experiences stress. These complications can vary in effect and severity (Young, 1997). Effects of marijuana use on the lungs In 1990, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) reports: "No difference in prevalence of chronic cough, sputum production or wheeze was noted between the marijuana and tobacco smokers (included within their study), nor were additive effects of combined smoking of tobacco and marijuana on the prevalence of acute or chronic