Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Baderman Island Resort Risk Assesment - Article Example It is also time consuming. The implementation of information systems to achieve a competitive advantage is a perfect example of a situation in which firms and governments find themselves investing a lot to enjoy a marginal ROI. If achieving a competitive advantage were easy, then a firm's competitive advantage would be no advantage. There are also risk and uncertainty in the implementation of information systems (Grey, (1995). One approach to strategy selection is the "Z" model of strategy assessment. In table 1 (see appendix), the arrows illustrate an increasing degree of risk as they follow a z-shaped path. That is, starting with existing services and clients, there is increased risk in attempting to cultivate new clients; there is even greater risk in attempting to develop new services; and there is the greatest degree of risk in attempting to develop new services for new clients. In the case of a strategic issue for economic development, the dimensions might be cost versus return on investment (Grey, (1995). If a new software is being installed, it has a high cost and low return on investment. If a small amount of expenditure encourages improvement in performance and productivity leading to improved service and customer satisfaction, , C might be the best alternative. t is important to use objective criteria to assess competing strategies so as to determine their individual cost/benefit and to gain so me information about their potential risks. The purpose of this analysis is to provide alternative approaches to use for making such assessments (Grey, 1995). In addition to this mode, a traditional rank possible strategies to address key strategic issues along certain dimensions. This risk analysis will consist of four steps: The first step is to identify a treat. Traditionally, managers prefer to maintain the status quo rather than subject their firms to the downside risk of failure, even at the expense of losing market share. Gaining market share is the upside potential of investing heavily in IT. New information technology results resolutely from changes in strategy. Reducing resistance to change again requires investing in human, financial, and time resources (Grey, (1995). At this stage, a special attention will be given to such possible weaknesses as time of installation and limitations of the proposed software, its weaknesses and possible breakdowns. Also, the management will calculate budget expenditures required for additional services and additional training of staff. The second step is to identify who might be harmed and how. Fortunately, the global business environment and fierce overseas competitors now focus managers' attention on computer and information resources. Firms and governments that challenge their managers to tap the potential of these resources are gaining a competitive advantage. These successes press status quo champions to change their attitude (Grey, (1995). The third step is to analyze risks and develop contingency plans. Contingency planning provides a course of action for unplanned events. Contingency plans are preparations to take specific action(s) when an event not planned for in the formal planning process takes place. As the definition states, events in the business, political, or even personal worlds of employees and decision makers can have an effect upon
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Research Paper Topics Asha QuestionsAsha is one of the most popular searches among students and has helped many people achieve good grades. These days, she is one of the most demanded words of the world today. Some students will ask themselves to get help on how to prepare for sea research paper topics asha questions or it's the best possible solution to get good marks.If you have prepared the homework you should also consider getting some information about the topic and how the topics are planned for the next year. The subject is so complex that it seems hard to get a good grade. However, with proper preparation you can come up with great scores and study in schools. Asha is very useful when students prepare themselves for good results. In this article, we will provide you some of the simple tips for preparing asha research paper topics asha questions.Your research papers can help you in a lot of ways. A research paper helps you to discuss about different topics which includes topic s like money, finance, and other subjects related to education. Research papers are really helpful to improve the knowledge about subjects as well as help students in understanding various aspects of the subjects. Students can write such research papers to get recognition from the school or college and also help them in achieving good results in the future. They can also look up the help and tips available on online universities for easy access to this system.You can select a new topic to discuss. You can consult some articles to know about the topic and prepare the questions according to the subject. You can also search online. Many students have posted their questions and answers on the web to help the other students to study on their own. The online education schools provide you a wide range of topics and also let you share your answers with other students to get feedback and results.Go through your favorite topics. You can collect the information about the topics you want to stu dy. This way you will not have any problem at all. It will be easier for you to choose the topic as per your convenience. If you go through all the questions, you will see that some questions might be difficult for you can easily select some questions from the topics.After you finish the first round of questions, you can take some time to ask about the main questions and final question. Ask the questions and answer them accordingly. Don't let yourself talk in front of the class. If you feel you can't answer the question adequately, then you can go back to the topic and look for some alternatives. After you are done with this, make sure you prepare some research paper topics asha questions on the topics that you can discuss with the class.You will not get any problem in preparing for sea research paper topics. The answers on your questions will help you in solving the questions so that you can help your classmates too. This will help you in achieving high results in future.
Friday, February 7, 2020
The Fundamentals of Every Woman Matters Term Papers Revealed New Ideas Into Every Woman Matters Term Papers Never Before Revealed I hope, it is going to help you to the core. It isn't important whether you're in a position to find an ideal topic for your research paper or you simply have an anatomy and physiology research idea. The great thing is that, with our assistance, you won't ever be late to file your papers. What Everybody Dislikes About Every Woman Matters Term Papers and Why Mentoring also doesn't need to be strictly business. My mentor read the very first paragraph and simply shook his head. Clarify your perfect mentor Get clear of what you want in a mentor or sponsor. There is going to be basic questions from such topics which will test your capability up to 10th level. Just practice, whatever you receive. You don't have to be overly formal about any of this, just ask if they could offer you a bit of opportunity to give guidance. Moreover, college educators grade written assignments from various perspectives based on their own private preferences and subjective interpretations of the subject issue. The Every Woman Matters Term Papers Trap At the start of the movie it seen that she plays the standard function of a female who's married in an Indian classic method. The majority of LGBTQ culture appears to imply that the fetishism of the opposite sex's clothes ought to be viewed separately. Taking a peek at a number of the European societies in the early 20th century, it will become clear that even regardless of the progress made during the 19th century, the function of women remains for the large part stereotypical. Bollywood, the 2nd biggest film business is widely famous for its form of creative art. Because written assignments form the foundation for almost all sorts of performance assessments in college, their importance can't be overstated. It's hoped that the articles within this issue highlight salient elements of decision making for individuals with dementia that are related to clinicians in providing excellent care to such people. Moreover, nearly three-quarters (74 percent) say they are more prepared to overlook slow service in the event the company is noticeably clean. Many such programs are offered for people to take part in screening, irrespective of ability to pay. Whispered Every Woman Matters Term Papers Secrets On being a woman within her socioeconomic context Doe's socioeconomic status looks brighter given the simple fact that she's a woman. The society credited to a woman a set of tasks which she was obliged to undergo so as to execute her social functions. The student who's researching the t opic about women's rights should observe the attitude towards women on the planet in the very long run of time and in various nations and regions of the world. An individual who is not transgender is referred to as a cisgender. The inexperienced students may read an absolutely free example term paper on women's rights and observe the proper means of the analysis of the issue. Therefore, if you're a woman, just are aware that the odds of somebody agreeing to mentor you're in your favor if you go about it the correct way. A strong woman is a person who follows her own dreams as opposed to a guy. She is someone who isn't afraid to share her opinions and speak her truth. The Woman Matters Term Papers Game The incident happened in 2011. Conclusion The Saudi Arabian government or another person or organizations supporting the ban don't have any obvious justification. Doe can therefore be believed to have followed the needs of her culture. All the mentioned diseases can be fatal if they aren't treated in a timely method. The Appeal of Every Woman Matters Term Papers In addition, gay marriages give homosexual couples the privilege to start families. 51 percent agree that in case the restaurant is actuall y clean, they are more inclined to overlook poor support. However, higher income produces a woman's odds of marriage less likely and it doesn't have any connection to possible divorces. Possessing low income isn't the only element that has the potential to lead to divorce. Every Woman Matters Term Papers You will be asked to be in your perfect medical condition if you truly want to become in Indian army. It is going to also jeopardize their safety because a lot of the time they'll be alone behind the wheel. And lastly my private position. Use the purchase calculator below and begin! Courses typically tend to inspect the growth of modern feminism in connection with the roles of women through history in the usa and other regions around the world. There are lots of women in the Bombay film market. Having said this, there are particular common themes in a common women studies course. The whole article is based on gender and the way to attain a balance between women and men. Taking charge of your medical issues and your body is vital. In the modern era of modernization women have made their presence felt in virtually every area and Politics isn't an exception. Numerous foreign organizations support women all around the world attempting to supply them with the favourable states of life.
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
The Why Boston University Essay College Confidential Diaries Yes, there's a person who can aid you with your essays expert essay writers at MyPerfectWords. In the close of the essay, you'll need to supply a personal reflection. Within this essay prompt, you have to cover two chief topics creativity and service and place them together in a significant essay. This quick essay will surely be a positive bit of her application. As you write your very own supplemental essays, be certain to prevent common supplemental essay mistakes. Instead write your essay in your voice. PDF is our necessary file format. Make certain that your documents are less than 500 MB in proportion. Instead locate a matter and describe how you wish to study it. Instead, utilize this essay to examine the format. Why Boston University Essay College Confidential: the Ultimate Convenience! More than simply learning about a cause that you care deeply about, admissions wants to hear about a time once you show ed that it is possible to take initiative and accomplish your aims. This usually means they're academically qualified, able to compose a well-structured essay and understand how to research from trustworthy sources. A superb essay becomes specific and shows particular understanding of the school. The Dirty Facts About Why Boston University Essay College Confidential Your paper should contain a minute of revelation, telling what you've learned from your experience and the way it made you the person you're today. The absolute most intriguing essays will concentrate on small, personal moments that have shaped the way that you find the world. The book must be fiction, but aside from that requirement you've got lots of leeway here. Similarly, for songs, you would like to steer clear of cliche themes like in Kelly Clarkson's Stronger. Ok, I Think I Understand Why Boston University Essay College Confidential, Now Tell Me About Why Boston University Essay College Confidential! Admiss ions wants to understand about the art that's meaningful to you and the way that it aligns with your life and values. The admissions officers need to be able to locate the principal idea in your essay and follow it from the start to finish. Real individuals are reading your program, and we would like to do our very best to understand and appreciate the actual individuals applying to Duke. It is extremely difficult to acquire into Boston college. The Fight Against Why Boston University Essay College Confidential This sounds straightforward, but you should be careful. Don't be scared to get a bit out there! Read my essay writing service reviews and my guide to selecting the ideal service for everything you want to understand about how to pick the best writing businesses. Always ensure you take a look at the review my essay section of any writing service website you're contemplating using. As soon as you locate a service you want, don't neglect to look at my review of it. Per haps you need to the history of concussions in sports to deal with the part of sports culture in today's healthcare system. You're likely to need to poke around to come across this one (we did!) There's no need to try and locate the biggest problem. As we use a great deal of distinct substances in our everyday lives it's clearly likely to be of value to know something about them so that we are able to use them more effectively. Do not merely describe things. If Northwestern is among your top choices, you ought to be able to succinctly explain why. Since first setting foot on campus a couple of years before, I have discovered that Penn has ever stood out in my search for the ideal university. You're not being requested to explain how college can help you grow, but how Oberlin can help you grow. Test out BU to see whether it's the correct college for you. The Little-Known Secrets to Why Boston University Essay College Confidential See how they got in, and the way you can to o! However, I need to find out more. Attempt to locate a site that provides good deals and offers in place of rock-bottom rates. A couple of bucks won't help you get a good paper. Don't forget, in addition, there are discounts available when purchasing all 3 e-books and free shipping when purchasing all three text books. Whichever topic you decide to analyze, be sure to discuss thepersonal effect. Your chosen title needs to have inspired you in some way, if it be introducing you to a brand-new perspective or emotionally empowering you in an important way. Finally, since the remainder of my application clearly demonstrates, music is a significant part my life. Also don't forget that heroes don't necessarily have to be rich or overly famous, although they have to exist in public life as opposed to in your personal life. Why Boston University Essay College Confidential Secrets That No One Else Knows About However, they all are thought-provoking. Sufficient information is pro vided, but inadequate to recognize the precise person. This is the perfect chance to showcase leadership abilities or individual values. Along with showcasing your own talents and interests, you're want to exhibit clear personal understanding of your preferred problemanda detailed comprehension of Dartmouth's related offerings. Give yourself the chance to truly write in your voice.
Monday, February 3, 2020
United States View on the Cold War - Research Paper Example However, the war reflected a competition between two superpowers that were the America and Soviet Union. This paper illustrates various view of the America concerning the occurrence of the cold war. Causes of the Cold War The United States saw the Cold War as a war between itself and the Soviet Union3. Moreover, the American saw the war as a global confrontation between itself and the Soviet Union. According to the Americans, the war occurred because of having different views regarding a number of world issues with the Soviet Union. Moreover, the Americans viewed the cause of the war to be various political differences that existed between the country and the Soviet Union. The other possible factor that contributed to the development of the Cold War was the Americans fear that the communists might attack them. This contributed to the Americas want to show that it could not be defeated by any other nation in the whole world. The other significant issue that led Americans to engage in the war was the bad blood between Truman and Stalin. However, other issues contributed to the development of the Cold War were those from the side of the communists. For example, the Russians feared that the American would cause a great trouble if it managed to release the atomic bomb. Another major factor that contributed to the development of the war was that the Russians disliked the concept of capitalism4. How the Cold War reflected Americans in the world Most of the countries that were involved and those that were not involved in the cold viewed America as one of the biggest enemy of Soviet Union. The rivalry between the two powers existed from as early as 1917. At first, both of the two powers were fighting against the Axis powers. Some of the Axis powers that were great enemies of America during the cold war include Germany and Japan. However, even though the two nations were fighting together, their relationship was tense. This means that they did not believe in one another on various issues concerning the war. This is because the Americans saw the Soviet Union as a major threat regarding to how they wished various issues would go concerning the war. The Americas started to mistrust the Soviet Union when it managed to gain control of the Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union on the other hand, started to view the American as a threat especially when it managed to make a move on the development of the atomic weapon. It is believed that one of presidents who contributed to the occurrence of the strong relationship was Woodrow Wilson. Under the leadership of Wilson, America had dedicated itself to maintain democracy. Wilson also managed to promote the country in enacting the free enterprise system. However, the communists were emphasizing on the issue of the excellent revolution. With the world class, the communists believed that most of the countries under its leadership would bring socialization in f uture. Through the contribution of Wilson in trying to promote democracy, many parts in the world viewed America as peaceful although there were others with different views. However, even with the contribution of Wilson to promote democracy, he did not succeed. Even the Soviet Union did not succeed in its contribution of promoting peace. Damage of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Reputation America damaged its reputation after engaging on the war against Vietnam. Most of the countries in the world viewed that America had not made the right decision on engaging
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Why African Metallurgy Is Important History Essay Metallurgy is the study of metalworking from all of its aspects. In other words, it is the art of working metals (Darvill 2008, 278). Geologically, Africa is known for its promising supplies of metals. Various kinds of metals, such as copper, iron, gold, tin, uranium, manganese, cobalt, bauxite, and the likes are found almost everywhere throughout the African continent in many different settings geographically (Holl 2000,1). Generally, the study of African metallurgy is important as metalworking has brought about the greatest significance that some of the African continents have ever experienced in terms of their cultural and social development. African metallurgy was said to have later given life to the Industrial Revolution around 1,500 to 2,000 years ago when the Africans living on the Western shores of Lake Victoria, in Tanzania, produced carbon steel (http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/african-metallurgy-by-nordine-aka-storm/). In the past, some of the metals in Africa were exploited which then resulted in the rise of some of the most impressive indigenous African states, while others have been utilized only recently, as participants in the modernization and industrialization of a handful of countries at the southern end of the continent (Holl 2000, 1). An example of exploitation in metals found during the pre-colonial times in Africa can be seen in the Shaba province of the Congo where copper belt was intensively worked, and also in the adjacent district of Zambia, along with the gold fields of South Africa and Zimbabwe (Holl 2000, 1). In eastern Cameroon and the western Centr al African Republic as well as in the Poura region in Burkina-Faso (Kiethega 1983), traditional gold mining was carried out. On the Bauchi plateau, tin mining was set up. Eventually, the renowned Nok Culture was discovered as a result of the reopening of these mines (Holl 2000, 1). During the periods of Pharaonic, Kushite and later, exploitations were seen at the gold mines from the Red Sea hills and Nubia. In the west at Bure, Galam, Sanakalan, and Bambuk, the gold mines were the key to prosperity of the Ghana and Mali kings. The rise of the Zambezian states in the early second millennium A.D was the result of the early gold mining and trade as well as the changing patterns of production in Zimbabwe (Holl 2000, 1). Both iron and copper working provided a more widespread evidence of African metallurgy. These particular types of metalworking is suggested to be found almost everywhere in the western, central, eastern and southern parts of the continents. Archaeological, historical and ethno-historical information all suggest that the exploitation of these metals was an integral part of the fabric of African societies in the past (Holl 2000, 1-2). Archaeological investigations was carried out throughout inter-tropical Africa over the past three decades and it has resulted in the unearthing of a varied and extensive evidence of early iron production (Holl 2000, 2). The introduction of iron working was said to be an important turning point in Old World history, and this applies specifically in sub-Saharan Africa (Barros 2000, 147). The reason for this was because, in sub-Saharan Africa, iron working (as well as copper working) technology or tools obtained through trade (Miller and van der Merwe 1994, 1) had brought many stone-using cultures directly into the Metal Age (Barros 2000, 147). As scholars have suggested, this had led to the increase in food production through more efficient bush clearance, weeding and harvesting, causing higher population densities; larger and more stable village communities; increased specialization, trade, and social differentiation; and the appearance of a settlement hierarchy and more complex forms of political organization (Barros 2000, 147). The origins of African iron metallurgy have always been an issue that is often a dispute amongst archaeologists. It was known that the vast scale of the African continents as well as the barriers in the politics and cultures had aroused difficulties in the findings of a good evidence database to dissolve the dispute. Iron was believed to have been the first metal to appear in the archaeological records (Childs and Killick 1993, 320). Radiocarbon dates has shown that the iron smelting furnaces dated to the interval 500-1000 cal. BC in Nigeria, Niger, Tanzania and Rwanda (Childs and Killick 1993, 320). However, these dates were known to have created a further debate on the origins of African ironworking. A few oppositional voices had argued that ironworking has been invented independently in sub-Saharan Africa (Andah 1979; Schmidt and Avery 1983) (Childs et al. 2005, 278). It might be possible as the process had originated from the smelting methods which are already in used in Africa to make copper. Iron oxides were said to have been used as a soldering aid in the process of smelting copper and with some experimentation, the process then accidentally resulted in iron production, which then developed into iron smelting. In some regions, copper was found to have been smelted first but evidence of it appears to be relatively low, where only the remaining slag was found. This may be due to the inefficient methods of production. Some archaeologists had argued that the iron working techniques might have been brought by the surrounding countries into the continent through diffusion (Okafor 1993, 432). The routes used for this process was suggested to be either running south to west from Meroe on the Nubian Isle (Childs et al. 2005, 278). There are also some which was believed to have come from Egypt and then the methods scattered from the north to the sub-Saharan Africa. Iron production took quite a period of time to spread due to the massive size of the African continent which has an extreme geographical context. This resulted in the suggestions that iron had a various place of birth. The wide distribution of iron ores geologically had meant that the raw materials were readily available resulting in great potential for multiple origins of production. Archaeological evidence, including production methods used in present Africa, it seemed unlikely that the traditions and techniques could be so diversified for i t has all began from one place and one technique (Holl 2000, 9). An example can be seen from a site called the Termit Mountains, in eastern Niger. Copper and iron artefacts were found and they dated back to as far as ca. 1500 BC and the smelting furnaces dated to ca. 800 BC (Childs et al. 2005, 278). There is still an ongoing debate on whether these evidences had suggested that the community had imported these objects before producing it themselves, or, it was simply because the earlier furnaces did not survive the archaeological record instead the artefacts did (Childs et al. 2005, 278). It is also important to bring into consideration that iron working techniques were kept closely guarded secrets as this factor may influence the period it took for the Africans to be able to require the technique. Iron artefacts found in the field are often the basic evidence of iron production in the archaeological records. These artefacts are often in a corroded condition and at times could be unidentifiable. It is often unreliable to base the origin of the context to that of the artefact as where it has been made might be completely different from where it was made, a possibility that it might be imported. Concrete evidence which are often found for iron production are the used bowl of furnaces, and tuyeres and slag from the furnace or forging processes. Bloom and bellows are rare finds. Traces of mining and beneficiation of iron ore can also be used as archaeological evidence. However, these evidence could only be used if after the beneficiation, the ore has proceed to the next production level; and mining evidence are often lost as a result of recent iron ore mining. Slag analysis and radiocarbon dating the charcoal which were used to fire up the furnace was used for dating. Metallography and petrographic analysis are carried out on slag and charcoal samples in order to help understand the processes within the furnace (Kense and Okoro 1993, 449-450). Reconstruction of the iron smelting technology has been made by archaeologists as part of an important process in understanding the running of the ancient technology and to stimulate confidence that their impression of the methods used are correct. Apart from iron, copper and brass were the other metals which were widely utilized in Africa. The more widespread of iron over both copper and brass must have meant that iron had more favourable properties for different uses. The durability of iron over copper had meant that it was used to make various tools for farming pieces to weaponry. It was also used for enhancement in jewelleries, instruments and impressive pieces of artwork. Coins and currencies of multiple forms were made out of iron, such as the Kisi pennies, a traditional form of iron currency used in West Africa for trading. Kisi pennies are twisted iron rods which range from 30cm to 2m in length. They are suggested to be used in various forms of either marital transactions or simply conveniently shaped for transportation, melting down and reshaping it into another desired object. Africa has many different kinds of iron currencies, often regionally with varying shapes and values. In terms of quantity of use and production , iron had achieved a significantly high figure by comparison to other metals, but, it did not replace other materials such as stone and wooden tools. Figure 1 shows a 20th century iron West African Kisi Penny excavated from Kenema, Sierra Leone (Source: http://www.bmagic.org.uk/objects/1995C107) Iron production was recognized as having a great influence over Africa in great regional variation both culturally in trade and expansion, and socially in beliefs and rituals. Evidence for the cultural significance can be seen today as it is still carried out by the present varying African cultures. Ethnographical information has been most useful in the reconstruction of the past events surrounding iron production, but these reconstructions maybe become altered overtime and further influenced by anthropology. In Africa, the Iron Age was mainly based around the agricultural revolution which was driven by the use of iron tools. These iron tools had resulted in high efficient productions on a much larger scales. Fishing hooks, arrow heads and spears were used for hunting. Iron weapons also post effects on warfare. The productions of these items in line with the other iron goods had helped in stimulating economic activities, and led to the rise of both chiefdoms and states. The processes of producing iron were often controlled by the ironworkers personally, or a central power in larger societies such as states or kingdoms (Barros 2000, 154). Individuals in some societies had resulted as smelters or smiths, who specialize in just one particular skill from the many necessary to the production processes as a result of the demands for iron trade. This may also be possible to have resulted in some tradesmen specializing in iron transportation and trade (Barros 2000, 152). However, the iron product ion industries did not benefited every African region as some have suffered from environmental problems due to the massive deforestation needed for supplying charcoal for fuelling the smelting furnaces (Muhammed 1993, 466). An example of this can be seen from the ecological crisis of the Mema Region (Holl 2000, 48). Different social status distributes amongst iron smelters and smiths depending on their culture (Radimilahy 1993, 478-483). Some were having low status in the society as a result of the aspects of manual labour and associations with witchcrafts. These can be seen in the Maasai and Tuareg (Childs et al. 2005, 288). Whereas in other cultures, the skills are often hierarchical in the families and these individuals often held higher social status in the community. The communities often depended on these produced materials due to their powerful knowledge of iron working. They were believed to have strong supernatural powers in some communities as they were seen as highly as the king of chief. An example can be seen from the excavation in Great Lakes, Eastern Africa at the royal tomb of King Rugira, where two iron anvils were place at his head, suggesting importance and powerful significance (Childs et al. 2005, 288). According to some cultures, there are myths built up around the iron sme lter who emphasized their god like significance. As iron production developed widely across the African continent, it had significantly influenced the social rites in terms of beliefs and, particularly, rituals. The process of smelting was often done in isolation, away from the rest of the community. Ironworkers were ritually experts in encouraging good productions and to warn off bad spirits with songs and prayers, giving medicines as well as making sacrifices. The latter are often put in or buried underneath the furnace. An example of this can be seen during the early Iron Age in Tanzania and Rwanda (Schmidt 1997). Some cultures had used iron production as sexual symbolism. Smelting is suggested to be integrated with the fertility of the society, similar to the natural reproduction, production of bloom represented birth and conception. Many strict taboos were known to surround the process. Smelting processes were entirely carried out away from the village by the men. As for the women, any activities of touching of the materials or simply just being present could risk successful production. Having the men away from the fertile women had been suggested to have reduced the temptations which could otherwise depreciate the smelts productivity. The furnaces are often exaggeratedly decorated to represent an image of a woman, or the mother of the bloom (Collett 1993, 507). According to the late C. S. Smith (Smith 1981), the founder of historical metallurgy, has always insisted on the fact that metallurgy is above all an intellectual and social activity (Childs and Killick 1993, 33). The African community had used metals and various other materials such as glass, cloth and wood to express their views of the structure of nature and society, in ways as complex and diverse as the beliefs themselves; even the technology of smelting, constrained as it is by the invariant laws of thermodynamics, offers ample scope for the expression of beliefs about the order of things (Childs and Killick 1993, 33). Numerous African metallurgy scholars have been at the forefront of viewing technology as social process. Technology is not a monolithic force that is somehow separate from people, but is the product of complex ideology, careful negotiations and manipulations, and the vagaries of local resources (Childs and Killick 1993, 33). As a conclusion, African metallurgy, maybe considered to be of important to study because, not only does it include a comprehensive range of study of iron production across the African continent, but it also gives an understanding of how it influenced the aspects of archaeology in Africa. Iron production had given birth to extraordinary diversity in Africa which then had created advanced farming methods through tools, deadly warfare and trading of valuable items; and then on influenced the life of the Africans socially, culturally and politically. (2, 791 words)
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Answer Key Ã¢â¬â Review Questions and Rationales 1. Answer: P, acute pain; E, related to incisional trauma; S, evidenced by pain reported at 7, with guarding, and restricted turning and positioning. The PES format stands for: P (problem), E (etiology or related factor), and S (symptoms or defining characteristics). 2. Answer: 1, 4. Answer 1 is stated correctly, with the related factor being the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s response to a health problem. Answer 4, risk for infection, is a risk factor for an at-risk diagnosis. In all cases the related factor or risk factor is a condition for which the nurse can implement preventive measures. Answer 2 is incorrect since chronic emphysema is a medical diagnosis. Answer 3 is not a NANDA-IÃ¢â¬âapproved nursing diagnosis. 3. Answer: 3. In the review of data, the nurse compares defining characteristics for the two nursing diagnoses and selects one based on the interpretation of data. Making a diagnostic statement is incorrect because the nurse has not included a related factor. Read more:Ã How to write a diagnostic essay. 4. Answer: 3. A patientÃ¢â¬â¢s readiness for enhanced communication is an example of a health-promotion diagnosis because it implies the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation and desire to strengthen his health. 5. Answer: 3, 4. In answer 3 the nurse fails to validate her assessment findings of edema, either by using a scale to measure the severity or by asking a colleague to validate her findings. In answer 4 the nurse prematurely closes clustering, which can lead to an inaccurate diagnosis. In answer 1 the nurse validatesÃ findings to make an accurate diagnosis. In answer 2 the nurse interprets cue clusters to make an accurate diagnosis. 6. Answer: 4. In this example intestinal colitis is a medical diagnosis and thus an incorrect diagnostic statement. 7. Answer: 2, 3, 4, 1. 8. Answer: 1 a, 2 b and d, 3 e, 4 c. Choice a is an example of lack of skill, an error in collecting data. Choice b is an example of using an insufficient number of cues, an error in interpretation. Choice c is an example of not accurately identifying the problem, a labeling error. Choice d is an example of not incorporating cultural information into the diagnostic process, an error in interpretation. Choice e is an example of incorrect clustering, a clustering error. 9. Answer: 1, 2, 4. Diagnosis 1 uses a medical diagnosis as a related factor. Diagnosis 2 uses a clinical sign rather than a treatable etiology such as Ã¢â¬Å"excess noise in environment.Ã¢â¬ Diagnosis 4 uses a diagnostic study as the etiology. None of the etiologies can be managed or treated by nursing intervention. 10. Answer: 2, 4, 5. The presence of abdominal pain, distention, and a change in bowel elimination pattern forms a cluster, suggesting an elimination problem. 11. Answer: The best way to understand the answer to this question is to have a list of NANDA-I nursing diagnoses and their defining characteristics. For example, the nursing diagnosis of constipation is a possible choice. Examples of additional defining characteristics for which the nurse might assess include checking the quality of bowel sounds, palpating the abdomen for a possible mass, observing the character of any stool that is passed, asking the patient if she is passing flatus. 12. Answer: 2, 3, 5. Pacing, getting lost, and hyperactivity are a cluster of defining characteristics that point to the diagnostic label of wandering. 13. Answer: 2, 3. Hemorrhage and wound infection are collaborative problems, actual or potential physiological complications. Nurses typically monitor for these to detect changes in a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s status. Nausea and fear are both NANDA-I approved nursing diagnoses. 14. Answer: 3. Answer 3 is an accurate NANDA-I approved nursing diagnosis with an appropriate etiology. Answer 1 is a goal with an etiologic factor. Answer 2 is a goal with a diagnostic statement. Answer 4 is a nursing diagnostic label with a clinical sign. 15. Answer: 1. A risk diagnosis does not have defining characteristics, but instead risk factors. Risk factors are the environmental, physiological, psychological, genetic, or chemical elements that place a person at risk for a health problem.