Thursday, January 31, 2019

Evolutionary Theory: The Relationship Between Science and Religion :: Evolution

Evolutionary Theory The Relationship Between cognition and ReligionIn The Selfish Gene (1), Dawkins introduced the concept of replicating units of information, called memes. They compete for our minds and our hearts, replicating in society in the form of fairy tales, catchy tunes, moral codes and theories. nonpareil of the most prolific struggles today occurs between the titanic memes of Science and Religion. mend their relationship is complex, its historical trajectory is one of co-evolution, mapping the gradual appeal of adaptive responses to each other. As these stories change, so too do our networks of meaning. sick bedfellowsIn considering the Christian faith (not more important than any other, notwithstanding one that I am familiar with), the role of religious belief is typically perceived as one of moral guidance. Before intelligence arrived on the scene in the West, however, religion also served an explanatory function, as through with(predicate) the Bibles story of creation. This role did not fade into the background when a entrant science was first established. As a matter of fact, scientific endeavors were appropriated by natural theologians funded by the Church (for example, through the 19th century Bridgewater Treatises (2)) to tell the existence of God through the manifestations of intelligent design in nature. Gradually, science began to develop its own philosophy and methodologies. It even began to provide new answers to the how questions that religion had previously addressed. Then came evolution. In 1859, the publication of Darwins Origin of Species (3) held a magnifying rubbish to the fissure that had been growing. The two giants found themselves playing with different sets of rules. Revelation and faith, positive methodologies in religion, were simply unacceptable to science. Lovers spatAlthough religion relegated control of translation and began to focus on spirituality and values, the conflict is far from resolved. Dawkins ( 4), like more other proponents of science, simply believes that religion is obsolete. Learning and knowledge, he argues, will swooning the cobwebs in our minds that gave rise to religion in the first place. Others give way proposed science as a new agnostic religion (5) and moral frame (6), praising its commitment to evidence and philosophy of deduction. Those in agreement have raised their own Big Questions (7) from within the ranks of the natural and social sciences, as well as the humanities. Discussions in the World Question Centre (8), for example, stray from democracy and complexity to sustainability and fear.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Puerto Rico in a Historical and Cultural Context :: History Historical Puerto rican Essays

Puerto anti-racketeering law in a Historical and Cultural contextBy tracing the roots of Puerto Rican development from the Spanish onslaught to today, matchless can see the influence of the dominant power in the fundamental interaction between different break aways of Puerto Rico, effecting how they viewed each other, and themselves. Isabels family, which is composed of Spanish and Corsican immigrants, reflects the attitudes that helped form Puerto Rican racial divisions. While she speaks from the point of view of a division of the upper word form, there is a great deal of history canful the attitudes that influence the House on the Lagoon that she only lightly touches upon. Although Puerto Rican federation has been racially mixed, issues such as class, imperialism, and outside prejudices have created a illogical between the different races. Although Isabels record of her familys background begins oft later, the roots of racial division in Puerto Rico started with the Span ish invasion of the island. Before the Spanish invasion in the 1500s, Puerto Rico was populated by the native commonwealth known as the Taino. Once Puerto Rico was invaded by Spain, the Taino were marginalized by the Spaniards, thus creating the first racial conflict. According to Piri Thomas They brought soldiers, money-hungry businessmen, priests, and opportunists. who burned with the fever only gold could cure. They brutally reduced the native tribe to near extinction by means of slavery, cruelty, and murderous extermination. Men, women, and children were set to head for the hills digging for the yellow metal, the precious gold. (Thomas)This shows that the first stage in race relation was motivated by the dominance of the invaders over the invaded. In this way, separatism in the early years of Puerto Rican development under Spanish approach pattern was based on the fact that the Spanish population exploited the islands people and resources, setting up a situation where the n ative population was marginalized. In other words, the marginalization of the native population was rooted in the economic desires of Spain. This created both a racial and class segregation, for the upper class Spaniards had control over the island, while the native population was forced to wing or be forced to work for the invaders. The Spanish occupation of Puerto Rico also brought another aspect of race relations to the island. Unable to utilise the native population to their liking, they brought African slaves to work for them. This added to the racial mixture on the island.

Response to Bystander Effect, Prejudice, Aggression and Deterrence Theory Essay

The Bystander Effect states that the greatest number of bystanders who find an emergency the less likely any unitary of them volition assistance. What ar your views about the bystander entrap?            The phenomenon of the bystander picture became recognized and found its niche in social psychology studies after the murder of Catherine Kitty Genovese in 1964.  As it is one and only(a) of the most shocking murders in the history, the emphasis on the psychological phenomenon that occurred in March 13, 1964 at about 315 am (Gado 2007) is overrated. Trekking cover to the murder of Genovese, we smoke none that at the very hour when the hatred occurred mint argon still usu solelyy asleep.According to the accounts on the incident, the victim did scream for armed service, and since it was a fatal assault, surely, the victims persistence to postulate few aid should non be doubted, -this screaming and shouting for inspection and repair may cancel out the fact that the tribe in her propinquity argon still deeply asleep (as accounts say in that respect are 38 witnesses to this murder), notwithstanding at those very hours we requisite not save dig deeper to unravel the mysterious apathy of the witnesses all we need to do is take note of the epoch the assault happened some of the witnesses may turn out actually heard the screams exactly still has the need to sleep to brass instrument a Saturday-workday ahead of them.            We can complement this further with what Abraham Maslows pecking order of postulate states that the greatest need of an individual is his/her physiological needs in which sleeps or rest falls under. Moreover, since the violent scene broke the supposedly that sleep-times peace, it is understandable that the witnesses had chosen not to leave the sanctuary of their homes, panicing that they could be the next victim. -the need fo r safety and security comes as the atomic number 16 priority in Maslows renowned pyramid model. These two needs therefore may have overridden any pep ups to be a cuneus or a Good Samaritan among the witnesses at those moments.            The belief that occurs each time a bystander exercise happens is that both witness thinks that someone else among the other witnesses is more(prenominal) capable to help. Let us simulate a likely scenario in observance of the supposition a 79 year old gentlewo patch was tripped by a rock on a crowded and industrious street. In an instance like this you may likely see that not only one mortal leave alone rush in to help the old lady get back on her feet.            A bystander effect though always has a chance to occur and cast its whirl to shroud a cloud of confusion that may blur the cunning of witnesses to response to an emergency. On one hand, som e factors may actually trigger off a witnesss or a bystanders urge to help.            First, the affinity or degree of relation the bystander has with the individual in need of help. This will define the unconditioned will to help and would trigger a certain sense of responsibility on the bystanders side to help that someone he/she knows or that someone whom he/she at least(prenominal) have something-in-common with (for example, supporting the equivalent basketball team, someone in the same organization).Second, would be the empathy factor that may come from ones re telephone calling of a previous experience that will move him/her to be of help. Third, would be the effect of mood and condition of a bystander (Bordens & Horowitz 1973), this however considers the ruling of Maslows hiearned run averagerchy of needs over the urge to help base on mood.How can diagonal be cut back?          &nb sp through with(predicate) quick referrence to a dictionary, prejudice would simply be defined as preconceived or  premature judgement. First, let us see the nature behind prejudice according to the Gale cyclopedia of Psychology (2005), People are not innate(p) invidious mankindy prejudices are sorted against groups with which a person has never had any contact. In basic analysis, we can thuslyce perceive that the organism of prejudice pre-requires innocence or even ignorance, -that ones oral sex must be a pail that should be empty or yet has to be filled (by information and initially with opinions of other people).            Through fundamental interaction and confabulation with other individuals, one would naturally absorb the prejudices of another(prenominal) individual he/she gets contact with. According to the communication model (Laswell 1948) in every communication process there is the presence of 1) a source, 2) a mes sage, 3) a channel, 4) a receiver, 5) an effect, and 6) a feedback.Applying this process in tracing the ontogeny of prejudice, if an individual has yet zero knowledge or background towards a molarject, as a receiver of a message he/she had to undergo the next step of the process, which is the effect. The effect here now since the receiver is yet an empty pail would be to digest the message, and if the message transmitted is prejudiced it will pour a content in that empty pail that may soon serve as the receivers stark(a) material in generating his/her own prejudices. In psychology, this model resembles the social acquaintance pattern which in any case explains the development of prejudice.             If we are to reduce prejudice, the direct equivalence we can derive from Laswells Model would be to reduce the interaction and communication with other individuals. This in reality however, is improbable as communication be twain infinite and spontaneous processes cannot be reduced in terms of amount. The number of communication sources can forcibly be reduced only if the messages that a receiver had already received will touch to develop and be repeatedly analysed in his/her mind which then will be used by him/her when its his/her turn to communicate as a speaker.            disadvantaged beliefs lead to stereotyping, which are natural tendencies to categorise the realness in order to shake off sense of it ( 2003). In an attempt to make the complex world organized as we perceive it, we tend to enjoin labels on objects, events, and individuals that has same characteristics which send to us stimuli that are alike.            A mode to reduce stereotyping and generalization as set upd by prejudice is to detect a prejudiced person to individuals capable of dispelling it (Gale Encyclopedia2005), these individ uals include those that contradict the classifys. This glide path to reduce and neutralize stereotyping, though somewhat indirect, will help in thawing whatever barriers prejudices had formed within ones propensity which eventually is good, as sooner or later this prejudiced person will have the chance to interact with a person who belongs to a grouped he/she had stereotyped.            In the treatment to reduce prejudice in the form of stereotyping, immersion could be a vital antidote. In the same manner as Edward Saids Travel Theory (1983), a culture or an idea (which in some cases can be a prejudiced idea) is bound to loose its original potency, its strength, and even its form as it gets contact with other cultures.   A stereotype can likewise be tamed if the ignorance and the innocence where it was founded over will finally be bridged by discovering the truth (which may include interacting with the people whom you had a ste reotype on) -this first-hand, actual, and direct encounter will not just reduce prejudice but also dispel it.            More than the more common but not-at-all easily done idea to be openminded, interaction would be the best achievable solution in reducing stereotypes.Write a two-page essay in which you bring out Freuds theory on assault. Additionally, describe Banduras theory on aggression and what strategies would he recommend utilize to diminish aggressive behaviour. Do you think that aggression is innate or learned? Why?            Sigmund Freud explained that the theory of aggression begins at the early ages when a son begins to develop his intimate relationship with his mother, being the natural supplier and nurturing entity for the boy -this intimate relationship will come to a efflorescence that the boy will have sexual desires for his mother. In the family picture however, there is the presence of the father -whom the boy will treat as his pertain in getting his mothers affection and attention. But eventually, the boy will realize that he cant win over his father, as the chances of winning in physical terms is impossible collectable the boys inferior size, the boy will concede is this competition and soon will realize that his mother is not a suitable object of make out and sexual urges (cited in Freud & Smith 1999).            This sexual-desire idea is called the Oedipus complex man as for the girls, they also undergo the same condition and it is termed Electra complex. Freud claims that these are manifestations of the modifiers that dictate human behaviour instinct and sexual urges called libido. Libido is energy derived from the Eros, or heart instinct (cited in Freud & Smith 1999). Aggression is the outcome when the urges of libido are not released.             Eros, is present in every man, so as what Freud had introduced thereafter the concept of Thanatos or death pressure. This energy from this death force seeks to deliver death and destruction, which also bounds a man to put down his own self. Thanatos does not entirely pour its energy towards self-destruction, some of which are channelled to other objects and individuals which explains the presence of aggression.            Even before technology, liberal thinking, and come science, and even before the man who gave name to the concept was born, the world had rest with the survival of the fittest. Scientist Charles Darwin used the phrase to term the endless struggle of beings against one another for existence. The energy from Thanatos may support what sends a being to take aggression upon another.            Bandura (1973) claimed that human behaviour is determined by the environment. to a fault mans behaviour also dictates his environment.  This means that a man learns his aggression on what he perceives on his environment, while with the presence of aggression or the absence of it around, affects what the environment will become.            Banduras approach in dealing with and along the process diminishing behaviour is through self-regulation or simply to control ones own behaviour. This begins with self-observation (watching and analyzing our own behaviours), then with judgement (setting a standard or an ideal measure were we can compare our behaviours with and pattern it to them), and finally with self-response (your manner of affirming yourself whether you are satisfied or not with what was your behaviour in a particular occasion).            Aggression is innate to man, I agree for solid reasons. First, I would refer to what Abraham Maslow (1954) refer as the second im mediate need safety and security.  From which threats do we seek vindication against? Harsh weather? -We got our concrete homes and thick winter suits. Wild Animals? Thats what technology and urbanization is for, putting the dangerous forage-and- hunt club lifestyle locked in oblivion, then what?The best answer would be human threats -which are manifestations of the presence of aggression in man. Second man is the superior specie of all but we are still classifiable as animals -beings which are programmed from birth to seek, hunt and fight for survival. An aspect of aggression is learned by man but this mainly covers the manners of aggression like the idea of how to use weapons and sub due impending opponents.What is determent theory? Why do people make crimes?            Punishments are pre-emptive instruments set by established jurisprudences and rules meant to discourage and terrify would-be offenders. An ever-existing idea bas ed on what is called the Deterrence theory. Deterrence theory is based on the concept that, if the consequence of rendting a crime out considers the benefit of the crime itself, the individual will be deterred from ripting the crime. (Summerfield, 2006, p. 1).            By default, deterrence theory lies on the business a punishment can enter to the subjects of a law.     Ideally, a law applies to everyone in a state both the government and the subjects. But in reality, since deterrence theory was put to practice in an organized- gild nation, it has revealed some serious flaws in itself.            Write Morgan Summerfield traced the origin of the deterrence theory -stemming out the roots of its practice from old England from the Dark Ages, feudal Era, the Tudor period, when feudal lords, kings, and queens, where the first to introduce the system of punishment.   &n bsp        Although crimes at that era meant heavy punishment, as Summerfield would collectively describe as brutal and repelling, an individuals economic status would determine his vulnerability to the good consequences of the crime Someone wealthy or influential could often commit offences with impunity, while someone of lesser birth would be severely penalize for the same offence.            Between this statements lines lies an implication the power of money, and the call to have it, which is avarice, is also encouraged.   Money, power, and influence has been the bridges to punishment-evasion several centuries ago. These gives commentary to deterrence theory as the imperfect concept where present laws and subjects-controlling policies are taken from.            The answer to the question wherefore do people commit crimes lies in the failures of deterre nce theory. By default, law enforcers assume that making it know to the people that crimes are met with punishments is not enough.            First reason not every criminal are caught, hence the crime = penalty equation is not absolute. Second, every criminal does not have the same level of fear the fear variable is defined by how hard the criminal/law offender is (a repeatedly imprisoned individual may not fear the conditions of being in jail as much as a first-time convict would. Third would be how able the criminal is in defend/saving himself/herself from the legal repercussions of the crime.            If we are to directly relate the question why do people commit crimes with the fear-dependent deterrent theory, we can conclude that the inconsistency of fear among the subjects of a law do explains why not all individuals are stopped by impending punishments and thus, go on and commit crime s.            Another premise that may explain why do people commit crimes is the existence of free will When they act in a criminal manner, they do so out of free will and weigh the consequences of their actionsthey know what they are doing and choose to do it (Summerfield 2006).  Along with it is the belief of Chinese Philosopher, Kong Zi (Xun-Zi) that man is by nature evil. -reflected in the oldest book of all time, the Bible, in the chapter of Genesis where the first man used its free will to drop the rule set by God in the Garden of Eden.            Kong Zi retardation acknowledges too that man is capable of doing good but for a man to do a good act it has to be done consciously. The societys means of increasing mans awareness and sensibility to do conscious good acts, to teach what is correct and to do right is by establishing institutions  (schools, churches) to teach norms, an d make laws and policies (to assure that the norms are followed).  -Which brings us to an mere(a) cycle the naturally evil man is straightened out and taught what is good being covered by different laws and policies which is based from the deterrence theory.On a research done by Richard Lebow and Janice Stein (1995), they claimed thatDeterrence theory seldom succeeds. Although their work underwent waves of criticisms and was thoroughly scrutinized for gaps and flaws, the spirit of deterrence theory, which is carried over by the laws in present time seems to testify on the findings of Lebow and Stein.ReferencesContributors Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression A kindly Learning Analysis. p. 183. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall.Bordens, K. Sm, Horowtiz, I, A.(Eds.). (2001) Social Psychology (second edition). Lawrence    Erlbaum AssociatesGado, M. (2007) A Cry in the dark The Kitty Genovese Murder  Retrieved February 26, 2008 from discourtesy Library, Courtroom Televis ion Network, LLC.Gale Group, (2001). Gale Encyclopaedia of Psychology, 2nd Ed..  Retrieved February 27, 2008from http//, W. (2006). Social cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA Valdosta            maintain University. Retrieved February 28, 2008 from         http//, R., Lebow, R., Stein, (Eds.). (1985) Psychology and Deterrence . Baltimore The Johns   Hopkins Press,Laswell, H.D., (1948). The structure and function of communication in society -in the communication of ideas, ed. Bryson, L. New York Harper.Maslow, A (1954). Motivation and (February 2003). The Psychology of Prejudice Retrieved February 28, 2008 from        http//, E. W. (1983) Travelling Theory, The World, the Text, and the Critic.            Cambridge Harvard   University Press.Smith, A. K. (1999) Theories of Aggression. Biology 202 1999 Final Web Reports-Biology.      Retrieved February 28, 2008 from Serendip database.Summerfield, M. (2006). Evolution of Deterrence Crime Theory, a journey with an End. Retrieved             February 27, 2008 from Associated Content, Inc.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Womens’ Liberation Movement Notes

The Womens Liberation movement AKA Womens Lib Feminist travail or Womens Rights Movement womens liberation movement is the radical notion that women are human conceptions -women fighting male situation structure Women, you may be libber if you -had lots of choices after juicy school -had the option of college/grad school -have a career/ speculate and family -plan to be a doctor, lawyer, engineer ( maestro) -support fair work salary for any work -workplace is free of sexual discrimination -participate in womens sports -go to a cleaning woman doctor - right to voter turnout in any g anywherenmental race -run for any political office intend to use daycare -can bear a come along apart (custody) -You have the choose of wearing jeans and tennis shoes instead of a girdle and heels man is not the enemy here that the mate victim -Betty Friedan -If civil experts are denied by somebody, it affects everybody Men, you may be feminist if you -are in college or have had other o pportunities because of moms good job to convey to income -mom had support services to help raise you/siblings -have a content, stay at shoes mom -have ever been asked by by a miss (or paid) Understand and Appreciate Art -How is it put together? What do I own(prenominal)ly bring? -Where did it come from? (Context) The First rove of Feminism 1848-1920 -Womens Rights dominion *Seneca F altogethers, NY July 19-20, 1848 -19th Amendment *ratified June 26, 1920 *voting day November 2, 1920 Second Wave of Feminism 1960s-70s nation of Womens Rights in 1848 by Custom and/or Law -Economic *could not subvert/sell property *could not envision into contracts without husbands consent *actually seen as property -Social *no recourse to spousal abuse *no dissociate without husbands consent *few custody rights over kids *could not go out in public alone Educational *denied any rearing *denied education in math, language *most could not go to college *could not enter the professions (law, e ngineering) *some women attended female seminars or academies to become teachers once they were wed, however, they were open fire -Political *could not serve on a dialog box *could not admit in a case (as well emotional, not trustworthy) *could not vote (not smart, too delicate, vote wish well husband) Lizzy Borden acquitted by a jury of 12 men not guilty of killing her two parents Lizzie Borden took an hack And gave her mother forty whacks.When she saw what she had done She gave her father forty-one. The Birth of the Womens Movement -Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention with their husbands in London they were denied seats because they were women -The women reunited at a tea party at the McKlintock House in July 1848 (Seneca Falls, NY) and mulish on a convention -Stanton mostly wrote the The proclamation of Rights and Sentiments *We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men and women are created suitable List of Grieva nces -never exercised the right to vote he made her morally, an irresponsible being -in the eye of the law, married women were dead -denied right to education -denied divorce rights -demeaned to second-class citizens Womens Rights Convention, July 19-20, 1848 -300 men and women self-collected at the Wesleyan Methodist Church, Seneca Falls, NY -Ratification of their Declaration -Fight over the 11th amendment (suffrage) -Frederick Douglass (great orator, ex-slave, combining weight to Malcolm X) fought for womens rights at the convention compared value of women as lesser than animals in fiat motion-picture show trim back Notes Not for Ourselves Alone- Seneca Falls narrations from female historians reflecting -procession of women to Seneca Falls -July 19, moreover women attended July 20, open to all (over 300 men and women) -Lucretias husband was asked to belong (the women were nervous because they never spoke in public) -men decried women of their rights -68 men and women signed their Declaration -11 bran-new conditions, just 10 were passed still no right to vote -The right to vote is ours. Have it we must, use it we will -Stanton -Without the vote, women would be unable to change the laws that hurt them -Douglass The Suffrage Movement Susan B. Anthony (died 1906) *Last public wrangling Failure is impossible *One of four women and 2 modern women to be on money -Carrie Chapman Catt -Alice Paul Iron Jawed Angels (film) -women jailed for fighting for suffrage The End of the First Wave -Ratification of the 19th Amendment, June 29, 1920 Sufragette women (1920s) who fought for womens rights moving picture Clip Notes -Interview with pathos Dyk (98 yrs. old) mom was a suffragette -Interview with Ethel Hall (100 yrs. old) -more than 8 million women voted -14 years for women to vote since Declaration Stanton and Anthony did not get to vote because they died One Step Forward, two Steps Back -Some improvement -loss of steam -Great De shoveion (Migrant sire ico nic Great Depression photo taken by Dorothy Lange, 1936) We tail assembly Do It World War II The 1940s -women take over masculine jobs to help win the war -if youve used an electric mixer in your kitchen, you can learn to run a drill press -Rosie the Riveter represented a lot of women iconic poster by J. Howard Miller -6 million women became Rosies -Rosie the Riveter by the Four Vagabonds (song) Marilyn Monroe (Norma Jane Baker) was a Rosie operative with planes, when a photographer saw her and took army photos -Fannie Lou Hamer sharecropper who became a satisfying voting rights and civil rights activist Rush to the Altar mid-late 1940s -soldiers come home, women go home, men take back the jobs Marriage rate 1948- 16. 4% 2008- 7. 1% Traditional Housewives (Suburbs) mid-fifties -normalcy after the war -traditional families/sex roles -PhT (Putting preserve Through) and Mrs. degrees (women going to college to find a husband) -the specimen of the housewife the feminine mystique video Clip Notes wherefore Study Home Economics (University of Kansas) -Im going to have to know -.. homemaker the rest of my life -were going to get married, no choice -Counselor Home Ec training teaches you how to be a break a substance homemaker Ultimate Goal Marriage and Family -regardless of education -TV presentation start it to Beaver portrayed traditional family roles -TV was new in the 50s what messages were TV shows displace to men and women? -Drop the Mop song (Equal jobs and educational opportunities) The Winds of discontentednessedness (late 50s, early 60s) legal job discrimination -1/3 women working(a) exterior of home (low paying jobs, laid off first, glass ceiling) -After WWII, new technology -Airline jobs- as soon as a stewardess got married, she was fire wasnt the same for pilots ( whole could be male) -teaching was considered the best job (others were secretaries, but no professions) -Lorena Weeks employ 1964 legislation to fight the legal discriminat ion at work *operated switchboards nether bad hours and low pay Dissatisfied Housewives -Betty Friedan voice of dissatisfied housewives -Wrote The fair(prenominal) Mystique (1953)Video Clip Notes -K. Foley working wife/mother *frozen opportunities and inadequacy of jobs -Dust Roady acquire college degree in 1950, extremityed to be a pilot, denied position and only offered to be a stewardess Video Clip Notes Eastern Airlines commercial-grade -discriminatory and demeaning towards female (stewardesses) -they were fired at age 32, versus male pilots being fired at age 60 -Friedan challenged the identity of women in her intensity .. cannot find herself in a house -not all women bought her message, however -Jacqui Ceball it wasnt us, it was lodgeThe Presidents Commission on the Status of Women 1961 -JFKs presidency women were paid $0. 59 for every $1 men were paid -2008 women were paid $0. 77 for every $1 men were paid -low, unequal pay -poor job opportunities -quotas in profession al schools (only a certain number of women) -lack of social services -TV show any in the Family wage disparity (Archie was the husband) -60s some nuns got rid of their habits (changes in the church) The face-to-face is political -social restrictions *men only and women only public places women were isolated in their own homes- they couldnt meet up and talk -this issue lead to intelligence Raising Groups, where women could talk about anything in privacy without men or children -battered womens shelters -contraceptive rights, including abortion (Roe V. Wade) -rape laws -Before Second Wave Feminism, issues such as abusive relationships were personal problems, not societys problem -However, feminists argued that society indispensablenesss to be involved with solve these problems Video Clip Notes -Women try to enter mens bar women are batch, start all over (black and whites, men and women)Video Clip Notes Second-Class Citizens -60s in some states, women needed husbands cosign to g et a credit board -70s women would not be interrupted during consciousness raising group meetings -womens impact dont iron while the strike is hot The Mid 60s-70s -Civil Rights Act 1964 censor discrimination (race and gender) -National Organization for Women (NOW) 1966 *created by Betty Friedan still one of the largest poetical organizations for womens rights forthwith *aimed at men too (better for them) *not all feminists of 60s agreed with her (like MLK vs Malcolm X)Miss the States Protest 1968 -Guerrilla theatre Video Clip Notes -March on Washington 1963 -led to life-sustaining victory for minorities and women LBJ signs Civil Rights Act -Lorena Weeks cited the Civil RIghts Act to fight *it took 5 years and an appeal to the Supreme Court, but she got the job she cherished -Women in white robes praying Mother, Daughter, Holy Granddaughter -to feminists Miss the States Pageant was epitome of ideal woman -female protestors threw bras, girdles, makeup, and heels in trash -Shirle y Chisholm equal pay and equal opportunities in stock market feminismWomens Liberation I Am Woman, Hear Me godsend -Helen Reddy -Politics -Legal System -Wall Street -Media -Medicine -liberal arts -Sports -Pop Culure -ALL AREAS The womanly Mystique, or Betty, Tina, Mrs. Robinson, and all those other housewives Betty Friedan 1921-2006 -Smith College 1942 -Wife, mother, housewife, source, feminist leader -The Feminist Mystique -Worked as a journalist in 50s, but got fired when she got pregnant she then did free-lance powder store work from home How did the Feminist Mystique get started? -McCalls magazine womens magazine that catered to womens issues asked Friedan to write a rear *Friedan interviewed women she graduated with and asked them What has been your experience as a woman? -The initial human action of the article was to be The Togetherness Woman (the happy, ideal, traditional woman) -Smith Colleges Class of 1942 15th reunion What did McCalls expect to find? -ideal 50s wom en -high levels of satisfaction and happiness -LIFE Magazine, December 1956 ideal American womanwhite, middle-class, frivolous, spoiled, beautiful, boy crazy.. Ideal 50s Woman -Feminine -Delicate Not intellectual -Compliant -Content -Him-focused -Family-focused -House-focused Video Clip Notes -Christian Dior set standards for fashion trends during wartime -Hourglass figure, girdles and slim shapes with big bust -feminine, lubricious -Contestants had to peel potatoes and make a bed in Miss America Pageant Barbie -invented in 1959 -commercial doll (doll $3, clothes $1-5) -Mattel International Video Clip Notes Xerox commercial -first machine in 1959 -take-off on Marilyn Monroe, ditzy secetary -overall message So easy a woman can do it A Housewifes twenty-four hour period -PTA meetings Shopping -Seeing her friends -In her kitchen What did Friedans survey actually find? -discontent, unhappy -unexplained fatigue and somatogenic illness -prescription drug use sky rocketed *3 years 1. 2 million pounds of Miltown (tranquilizer) had been taken by women (mid 50s) -lack of interest in the world or hope for the future -went beyond her college peers She found that for women. -College graduate grade 60% drop out (PhT) -Marriage rates up, age down (average 20yrs and falling in late 50s) -Skyrocketing birthrate -Labor Market 1/3 working nonprofessional jobs Politics Congress- more in 40s than in the 50s What did Friedan conclude? -Women pay off from the problem that has no name *The housewifes blight (doctors used these terms, even) -Psychological problem lack of identity -Trapped in a dilemma *Homemaker lifestyle that was the admire of many but not fulfilling, especially to the educated woman -McCalls denied Friedans magazine Article (editors were men) What is the Feminine Mystique? - office staff WWII ideology that a woman can and should only be fulfilled as a housewife and mother -Resistance sickness, mental defectiveness Intentionally pervasive throughout society - Fight back against Feminine Mystique is the Womens Lib Movement What did Friedan do? -Wrote the Feminine Mystique (1963) *scream of pain -Changed the course of history -Became a pioneer of the Second Wave -Remember Susan B. Anthony was a pioneer of the First Wave Possible Why? Theories -nations need to return to pre-war normalcy? -Artificial irrepressibility idea that in society, there are people who feel they want to be on top, meaning some have to sink to the seam (men vs. omen) -need for a consumer class with time and desire to shop The Freudian Why Theory -Sigmund Freud Father of psychology and psychiatry -Anatomy is destiny *Women are anatomically built to be mothers -Normal female traits are receptivity and passivitya willingness to accept dependence. -Freud is a male chauvinist pig -Shulamith Firestone coined this wording Friedans Conclusion All the theories are true -The Feminine Mystique is pervasive in society and it is the result of an intentional conspiracy by the m ale-dominated society to keep open things male-dominated The Stepford Wives Sci-fi book by Ira Levin men find a way to turn their wives into robots (ideal 50s woman) -Movies 1975- thriller 2004- spoof (credits show many different shots to send his message) The grade (1967) -7 American Film Institute Best movie of all time -Book written by Charles Webb- graduated from William College then wrote it -Ann Bancroft (who inspired prof Loughran to act very young) played Mrs. Robinson, an unhappy housewife -Dustin Hoffman plays Benjamin, a discontent college graduate actor was originally supposed to be tall and attractive, like Robert Redford -Katharine Ross Music Simon and Garfunkel wrote the theme song, which was originally supposed to be Mrs. Roosevelt -Director Mike Nichols Video Clip Notes the Graduate -Scene begins after Bens graduation party -Mrs. Robinson resorts to alcohol and melody -Mrs. Robinson youre trying to seduce me Diary of a Mad Housewife (1970) -Comedy of readiness m aking fun of a certain segment of society -exploring dangers of Feminine Mystique in a humorous way - make fun of upper, affluent lifestyles of these people Early Days of TV -1939 World Fair -Rapid expansion *Post WWII leisure *Better technology Better programming -Content *news, drama, variety shows * pass broadcast *advertising 1955 Fort Wayne, Indiana -Social Lives -Education -Business -Church TV and Politics -JFK AKA TV President -TV was live in the 60s *death of Lee Harvey Oswald was aired 1950s/60s TV A Mans World Womens lives are so dull they dont need TV shows women can make decisions in comedies.. -Norman Felton, MGM Executive Producer -Madelyn Martin, writer for Lucy shows Televisions Portrayal of Women (according to Friedan) -boring -jealous -inept -foolish -dependent -weak -silly -spoiled -materialistic I Married Joan (1954 Daytime TV Show) *Joan Davis (like Lucille Ball) *Mrs. Bradley Stevens (married to judge_ Marlo Thomas Arts Hero -Personal Life *Born 1937 *Daughter of Danny Thomas (comedy Danny Thomas Show) *grew up privileged *wife/stepmother Phil Donaghue (precursor to Oprah, similar talk show) *didnt want to get married *saw mistreatment of women firsthand in acting industry *wanted to be an actress, and was concerned about making it on her own playing -TV Series That Girl, among others -Film -Theater Writing -Free to BeYou and Me (healthier childrens book) *books, CDs, and TV specialsOther -Producer -Speaker -Awards Lucy Award (outstanding women in TV), Emmy, favourable Globe, Grammy *same as Sidney Poiter not about winning, but making a difference That Girl -September 1966 -First show about a single woman -Force behind the show *scripts *clothes -Production aspects -end of season, she had a boyfriend on the show, the producer wanted them to marry but she said Hell no Making a Difference -Advocate for womens rights *The Ms. Foundation for Women -St. Judes Childrens (Cancer) Research Hospital *Her dad founded this in 1960 Janis wanted what med had- everything Dont compromise yourself. Youre all youve got. Janis Joplin first female rockstar -wanted to be equal with men -she wanted a personal life -From Port Arthur, TX ever so wrote letters and kept in touch with her family -Dated musician Country Joe McDonald -Wanted a career, broke with the band Big Brotherand went successfully solo -Died of heroine dose -Made it okay for a woman to create her own kind of hit -made it possible for women to have any type of career -1995 inducted into Rock n squiggle Hall of Fame -Helped women reach for the starts -inspired female rockstars

Monday, January 28, 2019

Intercultural Tensions

home 1) Insiders and Outsiders Although strategies for reducing intergroup tensions do exist, it is marvellous that misunderstandings and uncongeniality can ever be entirely eliminated agree or disagree. Name Student Seminar Section prof Class Course Code Due Submitted It is through extensive query in international relationships with the ever- pitch theme of insiders and outsiders that this essay has been cultivated. While strategies to thin intergroup tensions exist religious, ethnical and racial reasons provide keep back to ca practice session vehemence and disputes in the international community and exit never come to an end.For centuries, difference between races has ca employ harm in society through slavery and segregation. pagan cleansing, ethnic pluralism, multiculturalism and any other attempts made to bring ethnicities together or to tell them are too often the causes of disputes and contends. Religion has produced an immeasurable make sense of damage worldw ide to society, and is one of the largest creators of separation between peck. The above statements entrust be examined further in the following portion of the document.It will use wars, disputes, bad political decisions and the past megabyte twelvemonths of history to utter the point that intergroup tensions will always exist. Religious tensions Religion is one of the greatest proponents for hysteria between people of completely time. Christianity has caused wars since it was erected roughly two thousand years ago, not to mention, the religious wars that were fought before that time. Some explain the violence as consequences of different religions dogmas, to their precise faith. For instance, if a mortal lives their life abiding by the Ten Commandments and following Jesus then hey can go to heaven. However, that means that they must sacrifice their ability to steal, kill, begrudge thy neighbours wife, et cetera. Now, if a soul from another religion is as well as sacrifi cing certain actions so that they can reach their promised afterlife, then on that point is a direct passage of arms on a religious basis in that monotheistic world. If these made up people both believe that there is only one god, and they are both under different expectations in arrangement to be allowed into the holy afterlife, then of course there will be conflict.When considered on a much larger scale, the conflict becomes increasingly dangerous. The war between the United States and Iraq right now was started over religion. The Moslem terrorist organization Al-Qaeda attacked U. S. soil on September 11th 2001 in the name of Allah, which caused the U. S. to retaliate. Currently, the war is still prevailing, seven years later. There are many efforts to end the war in Iraq however after depth psychology of the situation, the answer is that the soldiers must stay there as a present force. cultural TensionsPersistent clashes among ethnicities are a major indicator of the never -failing hostility and misunderstanding of cultures. Ethnic pluralism has caused countries to revaluate their heterogeneousness, labour migration and expulsion, which has caused interethnic catastrophes that often result in civil war. When different ethnicities start migrating into an area the locals of that land become broken about preserving their culture. This worrying, usually evolves into negative impacts on the community due to hostility felt towards the forced change on the locals.The term ethnicity is defined as a way to identify characteristics, such as cuisine, traditions, prevalent ancestors or nationality to a specific group. From that, the volatile actions and conflicts that are disputed among ethnicities are much understandable when considering the family involved. The sense to protect ones family may provoke a person to fight, If group extremitys are potential kinsmen, a threat to any member of the group may be seen in somewhat the same enlighten as a threat to t he family. (Horowitz, 1991, p. 4). The hostility against other ethnicities comes from the inherent will to protect ones family members.One of the most famous ethnic disputes is that which is fought over the Gaza Strip, by chance the longest-lasting, and still problematic ethnic clash is that of the Israelis and the Palestinians. (McCannon, 2006, p. 411). Even after establishing relaxation for over half a decade in the 1990s the Israelis and Palestinians returned to war with each other. The strategy of a cease-fire between Palestine and Israel temporarily stopped the war between the two countries, however, the persistency of continuous ethnic conflict prevailed. Racial TensionsTensions between races are still very common all over the world and discrimination will continue to separate races. A recent study proves that in the new millennium people of different colours feel the need to have more exceed in between them. The traditional more abrupt style of racial discrimination is less commonly used, however, now it is a quieter type of discrimination. The term used for the racism today is called institutional racism. It is a way of tactically disadvantaging specific races through policies and barriers to employment. It keeps the black community in the poor houses with the low paying jobs and bad health.An example of institutional discrimination hurting the ethnicities and races is till loans. The bank has set up a scheme of which they follow in order to see who is applicable for a loan. One of the features of the banks system is calculating who is in the highest financial percentile group. Seeing as discolor males have dominated the business world for hundreds of years the bank considers the colour male to be in the top percentile group. This would then indue the white male the advantage for a loan over a black male because their average incomes are not as much as the white male group.The way this bank system work in the first place is only benefiting white males, which is discriminatory towards all other races and ethnicities. The whole political and institutional system needs to be reviewed and reconstructed in order to create equality among all races. This is unlikely to happen soon because it is a functional system, and possible re fixs could wreak massacre across the U. S. So the racial discriminated against populous is left to wait for a new system that is not racist. The intergroup conflict continues once again without resolve. deathTo compile everything covered so far, the following are strong proponents for wherefore the intergroup tensions are forever existent. The religious wars that have been continuously destroying lives and whole countries for thousands of year will not ever reside in peace. The large mountain chain of ethnicities around the globe have the opportunity to reframe from wars and complete turmoil, however, they choose to continue fighting regardless of peace treaties. The racially discriminated aga inst population in trade union America, primarily the United States, are subjected to many more years of institutional racism.Finally, to conclude the point that has been reiterated over and over again. Even though strategies to disgrace intergroup tensions do exist, the global system will be plagued with hostility and misunderstandings because of religious, ethnic and racial conflicts. Works Cited 1. McCannon, J. (Ed. ). (2006). Barrons how to prepare for the ap world history advanced placement exam. New York City, New York Barrons Educational Series. 2. Frymer, P. (2005). Racism revised courts, labor lawfulness and the institutional construction of racial animus. American Political Science Review. 9, 373-387, 15. 3. Gonzalez, J. C. (2007). The ordinary-ness of institutional racism the effect of history and law in the segregation and integration of Latinas /os in schools. American Educational History Journal. 34, 331-345. 4. Proudford, Smith, K. K. (2003). Group social rank sal ience and the movement of conflict reconceptualizing the interaction among race, gender, and hierarchy. The Journal of Philosophy. 19, 223-234, 11. 5. Williams, R. M. (1947). The reduction of intergroup tensions a survey of research on problems of ethnic, racial, and religious group relations.The Annals of The American Academy. 1, 166-167, 2. 6. Wilson, J. Q. (2008). The downside of diversity. The Wilson Quarterly. 32, 67-68, 2. 7. Hughes, G. (2008). Words, war and terror.. English Today. 24, 13-17,5. 8. (2007). In gods name. The Economist. 385, 4. 9. Sekulic, D. , Massey, G. , &038 Hodson, R. (2006). Ethnic intolerance and ethnic conflict in the dissolution of Yugoslavia.. Ethnic &038 Racial Studies. 29, 797-827, 30 10. Horowitz, D L. (1991). Ethnic groups in conflict. Los Angeles, California Berkeley University Press. 1-66, 4.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Learning environment in primary schools

possible(prenominal) training Environments or VLEs be the unexampled-age educational oversight engineerings that support interactions between assimilators and instructors. Virtual science milieus anyhow focus on using assorted resources comparable on-line organizations and practical tools to heighten the learning bring forth. The learning result and experience realized by deploying such a system depends on how trusty instructors use the system in the civilizeroom. The resultant determination to practice VLEs in essential prepares provides countless benefits to and arouse a human body of critical donnish direction issues. The end of this paper is to measure how constructs of VLEs deem affected accomplishment in primordial groomhouses, particularly in relation to the present counseling patterns and deployment of online and practical guidance engineerings. In add-on, this paper besides provides how pedagogic acquisition values tush impact the acquisition environment, particularly when schools use VLEs to propagate information through modern communicating systems. launchingThe action to accomplish a practical acquisition environment ( VLE ) in a primary school provides a figure of advantages. It besides raises many pertinent issues for the school direction. In fact, school direction should analyze this issue right exuberanty softly ( gill &038 A Shaw 2004 ) . VLEs argon the spic-and-span-age acquisition systems that provide a figure of practical benefits to schools. It s, anytime and anyplace entree, ability to heighten motivational spots in pupils, capableness to ease independent acquisition, enhanced use of modern information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) tools and active engagement of both instructors and pupils, are about(a) of the intimately important benefits ( Becta 2004 ) .Many school direction boards perceive a VLE throw as facilitators of transitions in instruction and t all(prenominal)ing method towa rds more pupil centered attacks, heightening interactivity in larning and assisting constructional cognition edifice ( Land &038 A Hannafin 2000, Pentland 2003 ) . However, t here(predicate) is a lingering confusion over the use of footings that set off online larning system ( Gill &038 A Shaw 2004 ) . The most widely accepted comment for VLEs as defined by JISC ( 2003 ) is genuinely simple A VLE is an electronic system that toilette put out on-line interactions of assorted sorts that can take topographic point between prentices and coachs, including online acquisition ( JISC, 2003 ) .Some other commentarys are broader and copse in nature. European Schoonet uses a broader definition for VLE Any solutions that apprize a coherent set of services with pedagogical purposes, stern uping acquisition and instruction activities ( EUN 2003, Annex VI, p81 ) . Commercial VLE developers use an wholly different definition while schools use the term acquisition platforms.The hi story and development of VLE is rather recent. With the promotion in figure appliance and communicating engineering, policymakers from different schools started utilizing on or the other VLEs to supplement their primary educational attempts. Although the use of VLEs is really recent, one can follow the history of VLE back to the former yearss of educational calculating those used technically lacking systems ( Winn 2002 p332-335, Ganesan et al 2002, p94-95 ) . If at all, some schools used this engineering, it was most likely motivated by technological developments instead than the most urgent instruction demands ( Esienstadt &038 A Vincent 2000, Porter 2003, Gill &038 A Shaw 2004 ) .There is a ferocious argument on the efficaciousness of presenting VLEs in a primary school educational scene. Right now, there are light studies of primary schools utilizing a full-pledged VLE to heighten the quality of instruction. Becta ( 2003 ) studies that, a to the full merged VLE whitethor n non be appropriate for a primary school at this phase in VLE development ( p35 ) . On the other manus, Gill and Shaw ( 2004 ) perceives that most of the primary schools depend on external inputs to develop their apprehension, deal and attendant usage of any provided solution ( p3 ) .However, more Numberss of schools have started to utilize VLEs to intermix primary instruction into the kingdom of modern practical educational constructs ( DfES 2005c ) . Some primary schools around the universe, particularly in the progress states of the westward have started utilizing establishment degree information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) to downfall in their instruction and direction aims. This survey provides how VLEs can impact the edification degrees of primary instruction in schools and in what mode primary schools can incorporate many pedagogical practical acquisition values in a seamless mode. This paper besides presents the use of primary practical acquisition tech niques that a primary school can utilize to develop its pupils and know fracture larning experience from them.Reappraisal of LiteratureVLE is basically a network-empowered computing machine package plan where the user takes portion in an exceedingly fake 3D infinite medium ( Dickey, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Trindade et Al. ( 2002 ) , VLD displays a high station of submergence and active engagement that finally makes a user as if he or she is an unreal environment. A VLE plan may let in several tools like conferencing system, syner perishic simulation tools, shred practical whiteboards, asynchronous and synchronal treatment togss ( Britain &038 A Liber, 1999 ) .VLEs offer several advantages over a traditional schoolroom. They are flexible, convenient, supply blue-blooded entree to class stuffs and incite pupils retain cognition for a long clip. VLEs besides empower larning that is student-focused, synergistic and self-sufficient ( Harasim et al. 1995 ) . Academicians believe t hat VLEs could assist pupils with rational lacks in advanced instruction. Pantelidis ( 1993 ) believes that VLEs have the capableness to promote active acquisition and they give users an experience of frugality over the learning procedure.Both move acquisition and VLEs relate with each other. Engaged acquisition is a really old thought. VLEs ordinarily pass on on active and engaged larning through enquiry. Engagement is an of import construct. In kernel, it is the mobilisation of cognitive, affectional and motivational schemes for interpretative minutess with text ( Bangert-Drowns and Pyke, 2001, p215 ) . An occupied scholar discoveries larning really exciting while the attending degree that he or she exhibits is far better and lengthier. An occupied scholar is besides a scholar by engagement and geographic expedition.The active usage of information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) and its tools could help a pupil become an active and engaged scholar. An ICT based, VLE en vironment ever involves disputing and existent jobs to work out ( Savery &038 A Duffy, 1995 ) . It besides facilitates different types of interactions like learner-content, learner-learner, and learner-teacher ( Chou, 2003 ) . Collaborative acquisition is possible with the deployment of VLEs. Students can easy work in groups to happen solutions to a common job or act as a squad to happen collaborative ( 2003 ) explained how teachers could utilize VLE to assist pupils go capable and academically empowered. A full(a) VLE system can better I ) the pupil s degree of handiness to the acquisition procedure, two ) the schoolroom interaction between the pupils and teachers and cardinal ) their motive towards the acquisition ( Lopez et al. 2007 ) .Using impelling VLEs to incorporate seamless pedagogical valuesThe execution of VLEs in a primary school can be really effectual. To put up a formidable VLE to back up a school course of arena, the direction may make to believe of its effectiveness that in bend is influenced by tercet of import factors cognition direction, students attack to acquisition, and academic commonplace presentation ( Becta 2003 p32 ) . However, all the three factors show a really close relationship. The basic attack to larning in a primary school is affected by the type and effectivity of cognition direction and its sharing form among different pupils.These factors besides turn over to some critical inquiriesFirst, how does a VLE plan act as an effectual tool for administrating cognition direction in a primary school?Second, can its usage and deployment demonstrate a positive influence on pupil s point of view close his or her academic public presentation?Third, is it possible for a VLE plan to heighten the public presentation of pupil in footings of mensurable academic accomplishment?Although practical acquisition environment is a fast spread outing landing field of academic research, its usage in primary school i s instead really bare. No much literature is available on this specific country. genius of the of import concerns that most schools express is how they can guarantee a better bringing for traditional course of study and act as facilitators for brushing pedagogical transmutations on the other. Another pressure concern could be the creation of the perceived digital divide as suggested by many writers ( Sallis &038 A Jones 2002, Valentine et al 2005 ) .Some school direction boards may besides experience or so the equality of entree to an online course of study ( Becta, 2003 ) .One of the booby traps of utilizing VLEs in a primary schoolroom scene is the being of a digital divide . Many of the pupils who want to take portion in the VLE glut may non hold a computing machine with an internet connexion. Students from underdeveloped states normally face this job. Another important concern could be the want of cognition in runing a computing machine system. However, some pupils ma y entree the class by deriving internet connexion from topographic points other than their places.However, these concerns may be irrelevant now because the deployment of robust VLEs can vouch a figure of benefits and advantages. They can authorise the school and its pupils with a far greater entree to the course of study by utilizing a specific and confirmed technological invention ( Vincent &038 A Whalley 1998 ) . In add-on, an efficacious computer-enabled communicating system can wheedle even the shyest and withdrawn pupils to fall in the plan ( Williams 2002, p266 ) . VLE-blended learning plan Acts of the Apostless as a impregnable backdrop tackle.The instructor who handles the plan becomes the ground tackle for his or her pupils. Anchored direction will authorise pupils to research, question, inquiry and analyze the class presented in a practical context. VLEs are really efficient in giving a meta-environment where the system will unite legion on-line resources that could be of huge usage to a pupil ( Sumner &038 A Taylor 1998 ) . Teachers use VLEs as a common platform to plan and make trade name new classs ( Minshull 2004, p25 ) . A instructor who uses a erect VLE can presume the thing of a cognition agent ( Davenport &038 A Prusak, 2000, p29-30 ) .DecisionsIntroducing a VLE environment is a direction determination. The most of import inquiry that research workers pose here is, what can schools make to put up a VLE acquisition environment and guarantee its complete success and maximal effectivity? Minshull debates that it is a infixed that the choice of the VLE and the manner it is implemented are in close conformance with the establishment s strategic program ( 2004, p20 ) .Many writers argue that VLEs in a primary school context is non utile and it may non supply the coveted result. It is true that many schools are happening deployment of VLEs in their school course of study. The most often asked inquiry is whether this system is making a new paradigm in instruction or it is merely quest to better an already bing version of plan.The European EUN Consortium Study ( Vuorikari, 2003 ) argues about three of import pointsThere is a sensed roar in VLE s developmentThey are non run intoing the outlooks of the academiciansSchools, whoever is utilizing it, deploy it as a traditional tool to circulate new cognition and accomplishmentsBy the way, this study proposes two plausible grounds for the slow-paced development in the deployment of VLE. The first ground is that most instructors are still larning the techniques in which a VLE plant. The 2nd 1 is the system s inability to back up the coveted alteration ( Vuorikari, 2003 ) . VLEs could be extremely successful tools for presenting content in a real time mode. However, it can work merely when it utilizes its technological characteristics along with the much-needed re-analysis of the instructor s teaching method.At times, instructors and teachers who are involved may hold some troubles. The teacher-level barriers to the successful execution of VLE system could be the deficiency of assurance, clip and homework ( Guha, 2000 ) . Teacher s evident fright of failure could besides be a large factor in accommodating to the new engineering. A important alteration in the pedagogical pattern to utilize the new engineering may coerce some instructors non to accept the utility of VLE plans because they note that those plans may non heighten larning procedure. It may be necessary to analyze the bing pedagogical atmosphere in relation to the present manner of instruction, scrutiny and instruction patterns.The type of barriers that exist today towards the effectual usage of VLE systems are nonintegrated into two typical groups those associating to the teachers and those connected to the establishment direction ( Becta, 2004 ) . Lack of good ICT installations could be another barrier ( Pelgrum, 2001 ) . Inadequate entree to computing machine installations and orga nisation of computing machine systems into VLE suits could besides be other barriers ( Fabry and Higgs, 1997 ) .Introduction of VLEs into primary school environment is a comparatively new phenomenon. With the access of new communicating engineerings and tools, the instruction sector will see accounting entry of sophisticated bringing systems that rely entirely on practical acquisition environment doctrines and aims. Barriers, when broken and shattered, will give manner over to the version of VLEs in an drawn-out graduated table. However, instructors and the establishments may necessitate to utilize this system sagely and in a productive mode. Otherwise, they may merely strike down to accomplish the coveted aims. To cite Tony Bates words, Good instruction may get the better of a hapless pick in the usage of engineering, only if engineering will neer salvage bad instruction it normally makes it worse ( 1995, p.12 ) .

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Summary of the Stanford Prison Experiment

Summary of the Stanford prison Experiment Nicole Bennett University of Winnipeg The Stanford Prison Experiment manifold 24 male college students from North America who volunteered locally through advertisements in newspapers. The volunteers had to be living or staying in the Stanford area, totally healthy psychologically, mentally, emotionally and physically as well as willing to participate in the study for around 1-2 weeks. For their participation, volunteers would receive a $15 per day compensation.The Stanford Prison research team relied on outside consultants to help them construct a believable prison in the basement of Stanfords Psychology Department. Their prison contained prison cells, a bath means, an eating and exercise yard, a solitary confinement room and an intercom system to make announcements to the prisoners. Researchers could observe the guards and also the prisoners using a secretly placed system of video cameras and microphones.Researchers divided the 24 volun teers into two random groups. One group was assigned to be the prison guards age the other group became the prisoners. The volunteers assigned as prisoners learned of their involvement and use of goods and services through being arrested by real police officers in their homes on campus. What followed was an investigation into human nature. Prisoners experienced extreme degradation, punishment, despair, oppression and depression as they began to wholly believe they were prisoners.The guards took their role quite seriously as they stringently enforced the law and asserted their given power and authority. The Stanford Prison Experiment, which was sibylline to last for two weeks, ended after six days when researchers realised that guards were becoming incredibly abusive and that the prisoners were beginning to forget that they were not existent prisoners. What this experiment shows is that we adapt and conform to social roles more easily than thought.

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Shalimar the Clown Salman Rushdie

The Clown Salaam Rushed The story begins with chapter Linda. India is a young girl, ambassadors daughter. His convey is Max Pulls, the Statesn former ambassador to India, and now the counter-terrorism chief. In this chapter source describes her wish to know more about her dead mother and intellect why her suffer dont want to talk about her mothers death. The plot of this chapter is settled in Los Angles in ass. There she met her fathers chauffeur who was known as Shalom The Clown. His authentic name was Oman, but later the writer describes the reason of him being c all(prenominal)ed standardised that.Shalom always looked suspicious to India, and her suspicions about him made sense when she realized that Shalom was prudent for her fathers death. Reading that scene made me realism Shalom was cold assails. It was horrible when he slashed Mans throat with a kitchen knife outside Indians apartment. Second chapter Is called Bonny. That s again name, and one of the main characters. It bring us back in year 1960, where we learn the real through about Mans murder. Bonny was a young girl who lived in Kashmir together with Oman, know as Shalom the clown.When they et, they aviate in love, and only when they had 14 years they got married. Nobody believed in their marriage. Claimers father Abdullah refused their marriage because he thought there Is no relationship amidst Hindu and Islamic. Kashmir was once a paradise on earth where all people, Muslim an Hindu lived together. It was the place full of happiness and peace. Shortly after their marriage Bonny moved to anaphora place because she wanted to deform famous dancer and there she met her second choice, Max Pulls, who fell in with her and got her apartment in Delhi.Shortly after she got pregnant and she got India, but she gave her the name Kashmir. When Shalom spy her betrayal, she went from sweetest, gentlest, and most open of any human being in walk too cold assails. Bonny was killed, and Max and his daug hter went back to America together with Mans new British wife, who gave Kashmir name India. Shalom, who once worked as a Phasings clown, got a job in a organization called lord Mullahs, which was Muslim organization made to fight with Hindus. He Joined various jihad organization and became terrorist.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Case Study Questions Essay

1. What are the inputs, process, and outputs of UPSs package tracking ashes?2. What technologies are social functiond by UPS? How are these technologies related to UPSs profession strategy?3. What strategic business objectives do UPSs info systems steer?4. What would happen if UPSs information systems were not available?Answer1. A. Inputs* software product Information* Customer Information* Destination* Current Location of the parcelsB. work out* The data are transmitted to a central computer and stored for retrieval. selective information are also organized so that they coffin nail be introduce by customer.C. Output* Smart Labels* Signatures of Receiver* Proof of delivery* emolument2. Technologies used by UPS* DIAD (Delivery Information Acquisition Device)* Barcode scanning systems* Smart Labels* equip and Wireless Communication Network (GPRS, CDMA)* Desktop and Central Storage ruff Services and Lowest RatesBecause of the advance integration of UPSs technology. It can pro vide services cheaper and more efficiently. That technology solves problems like logistics and supply kitchen stove management, freight forwarding, customs brokerage, mail services. 3. Strategic argument Objectives of UPSs information systems address* Operational ExcellenceUPS manage to cut down cost and save M 28 Miles by their truck using sophisticated technology.* New Products, Services and Business ModelsThe information systems of UPS created new way on how to offer delivery service. It has transformed the way the company gathers information, creating routes etc.* belligerent AdvantageUPS had already its operational excellence and New Products, Services and Business Models which means the UPS already gain a competitive advantage. Having this kind of technologies that they use like DIAD made them do things better than their competitors.4. If UPSs Information Systems were not available* Operational costs could be higher.* Millions of gallons of fuel could be burnt.* Millions o f miles could be driven.* UPSs would not be able to track their parcels and deliver them efficiently if these systems were not available.MIS in Action

Monday, January 21, 2019

Psychology and It’s function Essay

The American Heritage dictionary defines psychology as the science that deals with intellectual processes and behavior. The difference amidst a literature and a psychology discipline is that a literature major is al hold seeing their patients. Every remember solar day a literature major opens up their books, and finds out something else upon a force of constitutions psyches. They are presented with odd situations, with broken characters, and they must come to an run acrossing of whom that character is in order to control their actions. Literature aids us in our understanding of writeritativeity by giving us fictionalized example of how sincere people would act in intense situations. A good author makes you believe his or her characters are real, and understand why they do what they do. This is in particular apparent in Araby by James Joyce, and As I dress Dying by William FaulknerAraby, by James Joyce allows its indorser to see invigoration through the eyes of an adol escent struggling to be a man. It allows the reader to see the reality of what its like to feel unaccomplished and pathetic. The boy in the story is trying to make his voyage to the bazaar, his new adventure to mean that hes entered a new phase of bread and butter. Time shortly seems to slow down in the story as the boy waits for Saturday to arrive. I could not call my wandering thoughts to defecateher he complains I had exactly any practice with the serious work of life which, now that it stood between me and my desire seemed to me childs play, ugly monotonous childs play. (Joyce, 29) Illustrated in the story are the real emotions the boy is feeling as both a man too old to be child, and a child too young to be a man.The boys arrival at the bazaar, and inability to purchase anything shows him that he is not ready to be the man he is striving to be by triumphantly impressing Mangans sister. The story is a study on the popular reality of adolescence. Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a animal derided by vanity and my eyes burned with anguish and anger reflects the boy, in conclusion realizing that the whole quest was frivolous, the girl was a fantasy. So, in this end he has gained some self-realization. His ability to recognize his youth and his ignorance is a growth. This sort of keenness into the psyche of an adolescent could be found after years of study of adolescent psychology, or it could be learned through a muscular illustration like Araby. Araby, like much literature, provides us with an example of how legion(predicate) young boys feel about lifefrustrated, unaccomplished, and eager to grow up.In As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner we the reader get a unique opportunity to understand and see into the psyche of more or less every character in the book. We get a full show up of the characters reality by seeing the actions of the novel from confused positionings. Faulkner teaches As I Lay Dying readers that no one perspective is correct, which is a valu fit lesson to bring to the real world. The novel, simply from the demeanor it is written, teaches us a great deal about how different peoples views of situations effect how they interact within them. In the novel Cash is able to feel accomplished, important, and like he can do something about his puzzles death by building a coffin.Dewey Dell cannot understand this, she is disgusted that hes built his coffin right distant the window where Addie can see it. Neither one of them communicates with each other(a) or allows their emotions to be revealed. This sort of breakdown of communication between families is frequently a cause of fighting within households. Often, we do not understand that different people almost always have different perspectives, and explaining them could restrain resentment and anger. By giving us various narrators and no general judge of the situation, Faulkner is allowing us to see this about both the novel, and reality.Often in lit erature gives us an example of how people act in real life. I find myself relating literary examples to whats happening in my life almost every day. How often do we as a ordination hear the term Big Brother in reference to the way our government is acting? Many novels we read in class gave us an understanding on how people interact with each other in real life. A true literary analyst sees the characters world as a reality, and often feels like a psychologist, trying to get the cool it of the meaning of a characters actions.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Racism and Prejudice

Racism and Prejudice It is indisputable that in deed race matters. The four selections in this chapter and the Linda Lin article, talk any(prenominal) different kinds of racism and preconceived opinion, all of them true and all of them equally detrimental. I think this country is far from being perfect and from not having racism or prejudice problems. Nevertheless, is undeniable that it has come a long sort (President Obama) since the time of slavery and more recently Jim Crowe laws and the harassment that was brought against blacks.Later, recognized as the solution needed to afford minorities equal opportunities both in movement and in school, Affirmative go with, was hailed as the leveler of the field. There certainly is no surmise that in the 1960s at the epicenter of the civil rights movement, that the government had an obligation to turn back legislation aimed at equalizing the races on at least a well-disposed level. The distrust now has become whether or not Aff irmative Action has passed its time. Does this once very necessary legislation now in todays ships company do more harm than good?There is all kind of racism if you include prejudice too. It has been going on since beginning of time. perchance it is sometimes a persons own insecurity that makes them think everything is attributed to race. The truth is that separately group tends to be prejudiced against the other. Some are angry because some people lay around and collect government m onenessy and some are angry because they blame another class for what they cannot achieve, or for noncurrent mistakes made some hundreds of years ago.I think far too many another(prenominal) of us speak of equality and hope, yet secretly rationalize hate, base on little more than stereotypes and stories of atrocities that happened generations ago. Sadly, this is still a antiblack culture. The question is not Am I a racial? The question is To what decimal point am I a racist? To what degree a m I aware of my racism? The selection from Jana Noel made me think about those questions.At premiere I thinking I am not a prejudice person and I am not racist, then I thought of little things I obtain done and indeed I do engage in racist behaviors like I find myself at a higher level of alertness when I am outdoors at night in the vicinity of a man of African descent. Behaviors like that are considered micro insults. I am more cognizant of them now. However, unfortunately I acknowledge that I still engage in these barely conscious behaviors. Reading Noel I can associate the appearance my prejudice was form with the social control theory.There is no other definition why I would react like that. That is certainly not something that my parents taught me. almost White Americans will tell you, that they are not racist individuals. Nevertheless, if you could turn deeper into their minds, you would discover that many of them have reasons that they believe justifies racism. Amon g those reasons or excuses, we found the knock over discrimination of Affirmative Action, ignorance of other races and cultures, and the belief in the need for payback for past injustices.Whites in America should start by admit the human race and begin to work under the assumption that this is a racist decree. As we read in McIntosh and Sleeter articles, the white people in the United States have benefited from the structure of racism, whether or not they have ever committed a racist act, uttered a racist word, or had a racist thought. The same way minorities suffer in a white society because they are Black, Hispanics, Asian, Jewish, etc, Whites benefit because they are White. These minorities have grown up with racism and prejudice.One of the most difficult tasks in life to accomplish is to overcome the join fundamental principles that you are taught as a child. A child who grows up witnessing racism, as a way of life, is likely to become a racist adult. The world, in which we all live, is the same society in which our children and our childrens children will one day be. It is our duty as parents and teachers to see that future generations have the beat out opportunity at thriving in an equal world. Only through tolerance and understanding can we ensure equality for all in this country.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Why Go to College

Why did you choose to come to college? Education is the most measurable part of ones life. Not everyone goes to college rectify after blue school. College is not intended for everyone. For example, some mickle decide to work right after senior high school. College is expensive and some may even offer it is hard. However, college is not a bad thing it has some good qualities. For instance, it empennage be a time where students can venture out and tint new people. Like others, I, too have some reason why I choose to go to college.Such as, to divulge myself, higher nonrecreational jobs and get away from home. First, after high school may people do not consider going to college for whatever reasons one tycoon have. Not going to college was not an option for me. However, my parents never went to college, and watching my mom struggle to make ends meet I safe knew that I did not want that to be me. Therefore, I do not want to choke my life, paycheck to paycheck, and worrying a bout weather or not I am going to have enough money to pay to keep open a roof over my head.The reason for going to college is that I cute to have a stop life. Not everyone can go to college to better themselves, but I am lucky, and truly blessed that I am getting a opportunity to better myself. In fact, college is extremely all-important(prenominal) to me. I am the first one in my immediate family to go to college so it is a big deal to everyone that I not just go but to also graduate. Next, going to college not only helps me better my life but gives me more(prenominal) job opportunity. More and more jobs pray more than a high school education.A person with a bachelors degree will earn, on average, almost twice as much as workers with a high school diploma. get acrosss degree earn $31,900 more per year than a high school graduate. Furthermore, people who go to a two year college earns $250,000 more than someone who does not. More importantly, a college education can help yo u determine new areas of knowledge, consider life long goals and make wiser decisions. Getting a college education is an investment that is going to be with me for life.

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Plea Bargaining

Plea talk termsing is defined as the process of negotiating an agreement among the defendant, the prosecutor, and the salute as to an appropriate plea and associated fourth dimension in a wedded case. The profit for the defense is that less work is required on their severalize and they typically receive the same amount of money in return. An advantage for the prosecutor is they get a conviction and can alter the sentence both way they see fit as well as maintain an acceptable conviction rate.The court system heavily relied on the use of pleas to keep the system moving. In cases involving a plea the forecast is able to dispose of a case degenerately and move on to the next. In terms of jails and prisons plea-bargaining can also reduce the amount of gyp entering the facilities as jail prison term may start out been hang as a condition of a plea bargain. For a finable defendant, the advantages to a plea bargain are clear either cut charges or a reduced sentence.Sometimes a plea smoke can reduce a felony charge to a misdemeanor, alone thats lone(prenominal) a advantage to the defendant. Many plea deals perplex resulted in a reduction of sentence for the defendant. One gain in the plea bargain system is the fact that the judge in the case does not have to accept it. The prosecution can only recommend the agreement to the judge, but he cannot guarantee that the judge will follow it. As outlying(prenominal) as the victim goes, plea bargaining can give them culmination to go on with their life and receive the justice they seek.Some states have victims rights law that require a prosecutor to discuss the terms of any plea deal with the victim of the crime before making the whirl to the defendant. In my opinion, plea bargaining is acceptable because it saves the system a colossal amount of time, money and resources only if it was entered with full knowledge and willingness. Even though the defendant in the end may not get a sentence agreed upon by o thers, they still have to serve time for their acts of crime. Plea bargaining is simply accepted because its a quick alternative.


When young people commit aversions, in that location be usu ein truthy reasons behind their behavior and these reasons need to be turn to with care and musical themefulness and not the severest form of punishment. During the 1990s, several states decided to submit teen come alongds as young as 17 years old as bads, and to use adult- internment facilities for those who were convicted. I think that was a negative trend.Young people mictu roam a heap happening inside their bodies and minds, this is not to excuse them just now its a fact. A lot of internal changes are pickings place and by that I mean, hormonal changes, bodily changes and mood swings.Apart from major(ip) internal physical changes taking place, they also overhear to come with partner pressure and be hold in in a accredited way so that they fit in with their friends idea of cosmos cool and normal.Researches and studies on the new-fangled brain show that teens direct to adult judiciary result in being w orse than those who are not. They have a tendency to charter in to trouble more(prenominal) often and the offenses are more severe. (Patrick, 2005)An object lesson of the Law Being Too HarshReginald Dwayne Betts was executed at the age of 16 and spent more than eight years in prison, in Virginia for an armed carjacking. He was an honors disciple who had never been in trouble with the police before he thought he would either be sent to a youthful detention center or in an organic case would receive a suspended sentence. But astonishingly, he was act as an adult and was originally sentenced to 23 years of imprisonment. (Sharon, 2007)Locked up at the young and tender age of 16, Betts spent 8 years in adult prisons. At much(prenominal) a young and impressionable age, he wasnt prepared to deal with the horrors and harsh realities of an adult prison. He was preferably vulnerable to the happenings around him both physically and emotionally.It was cloggy for him to get use to bei ng outside(a) from home and at the same(p) time to deal with the isolation and stress that comes from being in an adult prison.To make matters worse, ferocity haunted him day and night he witnessed separatewise pris superstarrs having their heads split escaped and getting stabbed. He was exposed to disturbing conditions at a actually young age whereas approximately people would never have to boldness such incidents in their entire life.Even though Betts managed 8 years in prison, he now has a fulfilling career as a source exactly he knows that he is an exception and he believes that youngsters who end up in prison usually dont make it as successful human beings.Another exercising of a juvenile being move is Zack, who was recently released after serving 27 months for being involved in the robbery of an Oregon convenience store. His pay off says Zack (then 15) was struggling with a bipolar dis regularize at that time. At present, hes 17 and although his civilise was hes itant to welcome him back, he is once again a student there.His mother says that Zack will incessantly be a criminal in the eyes of the society and he still finds it hard to put the ultimo behind him and it was exceptionally hard for him to find work as a lot of people did not want eitherthing to do with him.Zacks mother admits that he de behaved punishment but probation and counseling would have been amend for him rather than serving time in lock up (Sharon, 2007)Why Passing Harsher Laws Against Juveniles Is rail at?An assumption made by legislators in passing harsher laws in order to make it easier to try juveniles as adults, has been that juveniles would be less likely to drop dead involved in criminal behavior if there were tough laws and indeed a message would be sent to offenders that offensive would not be tole roamd. (Brian, 2006)Though, research has proven this assumption wrong. Numerous prominent studies have prove that juveniles tried as adults tend to engage i n criminal activities more often, more quickly and more securely than those tried as juveniles.Fagan (1996) looked at the relapsing to criminal activities rate of eight hundred juveniles. The 15 to 16 year olds were convicted of number 1 degree robbery, second degree robbery or first degree burglary. Half of the cases came from devil counties in cutting York and the other half were from two counties in New Jersey. (Brian, 2006)Due to New Yorks Juvenile Offender Law, all the New York based cases were automatically handled by the criminal court, whereas New Jersey based cases were handled by the juvenile court. A comparison of the cases of both states showed that there were significant differences found in the re-arrest evaluate of those convicted of robbery.A higher number of robbers from New York were rearrested as compared to the robbers from New Jersey. Furthermore, robbers from New York who were sentenced to incarceration in a criminal court tended to re-offend considerably sooner than those from New Jersey who were sentenced to incarceration in juvenile court.A research, Podkopacz & Feld (1996) carried out a comparison of recidivism rates for offenders from Hennepin County, Minnesota that had had their cases referred for possible transfer to criminal court from 1986 to 1992. They finding outs were that those offenders who were tried as adults had a considerably higher recidivism rate (58 %) than those offenders who were tried in a juvenile court (42 percent). (Brian, 2006)Therefore, this shows that if juveniles are convicted as adults and side of meat adult punishments, then they feel alienated from the society and their continuative with the community over all weakens and this leads them to relapse to criminal activities once they have served their time in prison Also possible juveniles tried as adults are more likely to view criminal court proceeding as unfair and unjust and thereof they relapse to criminal activities to lift or avenge the un fairness.Researches have also found that those tried as juveniles generally had a positive view of the juvenile court. They were happy with the boilersuit broodment of the judge towards them since they sincerely seemed to care most their well being.In addition, the absolute majority of the people interviewed for the research saw the juvenile court proceedings as fair and only a really few saw the juvenile court proceeding as unjust.Majority of the offenders who were tried for the criminal court believed that the resolve they faced didnt seem to care much about them nor about their problems.They complained that the court proceedings were formal and rushed and quite a lot of them reported difficulty in understanding the legal terminology that was employ in the court proceedings. Many that were tried for the criminal court thought that the criminal courts process sent a watertight message that the offenders were of very little importance.Research has also shown that juveniles he ld in adult prisons were one and a half propagation as likely to be assaulted with a weapon and five times more likely to be sexually assaulted as compared to the inmates held in juvenile facilities.An earlier research by Flaherty (1980) showed that the self-annihilation rate of juveniles held in adult jails was 7.7 times higher than the suicide rate of juveniles held in juvenile detention centers and if you compare it with the normal youth cosmos than its 4.6 times higher. (Brian, 2006)Effective Ways of Dealing with Juvenile OffendersTo combat juvenile crimes/offences, judges and courts need to understand what provoked the juveniles to commit such offences in the first place.The best way to deal with them is gently and in order to meliorate their over all behavior gentler punishments should be given and not harsh, adult punishments, as the juveniles are in the process of growing up and arent full grown adults hence they need to be dealt with gently but firmly to eradicate their wrong habits for once and all.Judges like Michael Corriero, who is based in New York, are well aware of how adult treatment of juvenile offences affects most of the juveniles. He supervises a special court by the chassis of Manhattan Youth Part and resolves cases of juveniles that belong to the ages 13-15 and have been tried as adults for serious crimes. He tries to steer as many as possible away from the criminal court. (Sharon 2007)According to his ideology, a youths character is flexible. Kids in their untimely teens (13-15) are supposed to learn from their mistakes. If we lock them up, what will they become in 10 years time? They wont possess any special skills. And nothing can be expected of kids that have been put in to adult prisons therefore have been criminalized before their time.65% of the cases he handles are either sent for counseling or other such preference chopines, most of those programs are private and if the kids succeed, their records are sealed. Only the ki ds that commit major offences are tried in criminal courts (Sharon 2007)Although these treatment programs are very expensive, but they are worth every penny as if you jog a juvenile in a juvenile justice program then the society will have less adult criminals.Therefore its essential to see what kind of crimes or mistakes the youth are committing and to treat them accordingly. In cases such as minor shoplifting or gratification riding the juvenile should be counseled and should not be given the same punishment as an adult. Since the youth may have committed that grumpy crime due to immense peer pressure.Although juvenile crimes make most of us think of gangs, rape and murder violent teens are the exception. Whereas in reality, according to various studies, violent teens only makeup 5% of all juvenile arrests.The more common reasons for prosecuting juveniles in adult courts are drugs, burglary, theft, taking cars for joy ride (Sharon Cohen, N.D. http// 007-12-01-tryingkids_N.htm).Being in an adult jail increases a childs risk of being exposed to sexual ill-treatment and assault. educational opportunities are usually very limited and inadequate.Juveniles that Commit Major OffencesThe other side of the picture is that some prosecutors argue about kids that are similarly dangerous to be considered juveniles as if tried as a juvenile, they possibly freed of all sorts of charges and imprisonment as soon as they turn 21. (Sharon 2007)An example of such dangerous juveniles will be Matthew Niedere and Clayton Keister, who murdered Niederes parents in inhuman blood.The murder was planned carefully by the 17 year olds. Niederes father was shot five times and his mother four times by him. Keister shot Patricia Niedere, when she ran outside the family store, calling out for help. The two 17 years olds were prosecuted as adults and rightly so. In such thoroughgoing cases, where youth nearing adulthood have committed cold blooded murders, t hey should be punished severely. (Sharon 2007)ConclusionTo conclude, Id like to say that juveniles for mild and petty crimes should not be prosecuted as adults. As in the case of being convicted, they suffer from poor conditions, horrendous health care to inappropriate lock-ups and very few efforts to help them (youth) re-enter society.Furthermore they are exposed to sexual abuse and forced to grow up before their time and may face psychological problems later on their life, due to exposure to brutal activities such as stabbings, or even murders taking place in the prisons.Once these juveniles serve their time in the jail and are released, its also hard for them to re-enter the society and be acceptable by the rest of the society. They would always have that tag attached with them that they once committed a crime and went to prison for it.Therefore for minor crimes, its better to have them counseled or to assign them certain hours of community service, as their minds and personalit ies are still being shaped and hence its better to correct them by allowing them to ponder over their mistakes and to make them serve the society through community service in order to have them realize their mistakes.ReferencesBrian E. Oliver, Does Trying Juveniles as Adults Work? An Analysis of the Evidence, June 2006 http// Accessed exhibit 14, 2008Juvenile crime statistics, http// Accessed March 14, 2008 Juvenile justice system,http// Accessed March 14, 2008Patrick Boyle (2005). Articles Section of Perspectives on Youth, http// Accessed March 14, 2008Sharon Cohen (2007). Prosecuting kids as adults Some states ponder changeshttp// Accessed March 1 4, 2008

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Orsat Gas Analysis

Orsat swagger Analysis try I. Objectives To analyze the alter stick gas (DEG) from a combustion system using the Orsat setup. II. Apparatus As shown in figure, the Orsat apparatus consists of a water-jacketed 100-m1 buret B plug ined at its exceed to a glass manifold M and at its bottom to a train feeding bottleful L. The glass manifold M is connected to three reagent bulbs called pipettes P1, P2 and P3 via three cocks C1, C2 and C3. Each tube is filed with its own sucking chemical solution P1 kelvin hydroxide (30 % w/v) to absorb CO2 P2 alkaline pyrogallol to absorb 02 P3 cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid to absorb CO.Pipettes P1 and P2 are partly make full with glass tubes to increase the contact surface area between liquified and glass. P3 contains copper wire to protect acid against possible oxidation. The 3-way cock C4 is utilize to connect manifold M to the atmosphere (via suction warmness SP), to connect it to the sampling station tube or to isolate the trapped gas. III. Procedure a) preceding(prenominal) Steps -Fill the system with water & chemicals as applicable. -By opening angiotensin-converting enzyme of the cocks C1, C2, C3 at a time and keeping all other cocks close, and manipulating bottle L bring the solution in each pipette to the top mark on the stem of the pipette. past close the isolating cock. -Now connect the precedentr line to suction pump SP by turning the 3-way valve C4. Operate the pump to purge all air from the sampler line. b) Trapping the Gas test -By turning the cock C4 connect the glass manifold M to the sampler line. -Lower bottle L slowly until the water level in burette B is slightly below the zero mark on the scale. then(prenominal) close C4 and disconnect the sampler line. -Slightly lift cock C4 off its station to equalize the pressure inside burette B with the ambient pressure. Then raise bottle L gently until water level in the burette coincides with the zero mark.This ensures that the burett e now contains 100 ml of exhaust gas at atmospherical pressure. c) Absorption of Gas Constituents The following travel should be done for each pipette, one at a time, in the order P1 then P2 then P3. -Open cock C1, and slowly raise bottle L to allow the gas to flow into pipette P1 until water in the pipette reaches the (100)-mark. -Slowly lower bottle L to let gas snuff it pipette P1 and re-enter burette B until the chemical solution in pipette P1 reaches the top mark on its stem. Close C1. -Bring the levels of water in burette B and bottle L to coincide.Read the scale on burette B to get the hoi polloi of CO2 absorbed, measured at atmospheric pressure. -Repeat this procedure a few times until the rendition becomes constant which marrow that all CO2 has been absorbed. Then close cock C1. -For the next pipettes, the volume absorbed is obtained as the difference between the current scale reading and the one just preceding it. IV-a Experiment No. 1 occupy acquainted with the appa ratus and the procedure by measuring the volume subdivision of 02 in atmospheric air. A value of 79% should be obtained. IV-b Experiment No. Measure the volume fractions of CO2 and 02 in a sample of dry combustion products from the continuous combustion unit in the rut engines laboratory (fired with LPG). V. Requirements 1. Your report about the experiment should be detailed. In item you should write the combustion equation assuming the send away composition to be unknown, and representing it by an equivalent hydrocarbon CxHy. Show details of your calculations. 2. Based on the results of the dry exhaust gas analysis, calculate (a) The atom ratio (y/x) in the terminate formula b) The air/fuel ratio A/F (c) The relative air/fuel ratio ? 3. Compare your results under item (2-a) with the volumetric composition of LPG as consisting of 30% propane C3H8 and 70% butane C4H10. v. Observations Ambient Conditions PA= KPa, TA= OC Zero knowledge Ro= ml > Vsample= 100-Ro= CO2 Reading RCO 2= ml > VCO2= RCO2-Ro= O2 Reading RO2= ml > VO2= RO2-RCO2= CO Reading RCO= ml > VCO= RCO-RO2= Volume of Nitrogen > VN2= 100-RN2=